Two House Chronicles
The Folding of the Seals, Trumpets and Vials in the Revelation of John (part 1)
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- Published: Sunday, 12 February 2017 15:42
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By Hope Helen, Marsue and Jerry Huerta
Historicists have perceived the structure of the 4 septets of the seven churches, seven seals, seven trumpets and seven vials in Revelation as considerably folding upon themselves or considerably recapping the period between the two advents of Christ.1 This was certainly true of the 19th century Historicist E. B. Elliott who, although he did not recognize the seven churches as prophetic, interpreted the opening of the first seal as the, “triumph, prosperity, and health of the Roman empire,” and the opening of first trumpet as the barbarian invasion in the 5th century and the opening of the first vial of Revelation 16 as fulfilled with 18th century French Revolution.2 Regarding the 4 septets, with centuries of progressive revelation behind him, Elliott refuted the work of earlier interpreters who mistakenly held the Roman emperor Nero fulfilled the king that is, “wounded to death,” and then lives again to make war with Christ at his return in Revelation 13:3 and 17:13-14.3 Elliot’s refutation is founded on the perception of progressive revelation, which Historicist Oral E. Collins’ conveyed in an essay on how to interpret prophecy.
“It may be presupposed that the actual fulfillment of the prophecy in history will offer a correct alternative to previous misinterpretations. For this reason, it is to be assumed that the process of interpretation of historical prophecies is necessarily dynamic and progressive, every generation being responsible to study the prophecies and to discern the signs of its own times (Matt. 16:3).”4
Collins credits H. Grattan Guinness for the presupposition or hermeneutic of progressive revelation,5 which was broached in: The Insufficiencies of the Presuppositions of Dispensationalism in Rendering John's Apocalypse. Collins rightfully concludes that, “the meaning of the prophetic text should be determined first,”6 which is merely stating that the use of the grammatical-historical presupposition takes precedence in interpreting prophecy; yet, as stated in the insufficiencies of the presuppositions of Dispensationalism, the prophets were not given to see all the implications or significances of what they were inspired to write, which is irrefutably affirmed in the two advents of Christ; the distinction of the two advents were not see until the prophecies of the first advent were fulfilled, which affirms progressive revelation. Futurist Daniel B. Wallace concurs that, “there is ample evidence of progressive revelation within the NT about several themes—that is, certain themes are not developed/recognized until after some time.”7 Thus, it was progressive revelation that exhorted Elliot to refute that the wounded head in Revelation 13 and 17 was Nero. Futurist Mark L. Hitchcock also comments on the confusion that arises when Preterist Kenneth L. Gentry Jr. repeated the early misrepresentation that the head that is wounded in Revelation 13:3 was the emperor Nero in 68 A.D. and its healing manifest as emperor Vespasian in 69 A.D., while fallaciously maintaining Nero as the beast in Revelation 17:14 that is destroyed at a theophany of Christ in 70 A.D.
“…the mention of the eighth king seems to take the reader to the end of the list. There is no mention of a ninth or tenth king. The eighth king is the final manifestation of the beast. Speaking of the eighth and final form of the beast's rule, 17:11 says, "and he goes to destruction." Gentry says this refers to Vespasian. However, two chapters later (in 19:20) the beast and the false prophet are cast into the lake of fire, which is the same destruction of the final head of the beast described in 17:11. Yet Gentry interprets 19:20 as a reference to Christ's providential destruction of Nero.”8
By the same hermeneutic, progressive revelation, Hitchcock’s Futurists perception is thwarted. In refuting Gentry’s Preterist perception of Nero Hitchcock concurs with the Historicists that the seven kings of Revelation 17:9-10 must, “represent seven successive Gentile world powers or kingdoms,” and cannot be interpreted as seven individual kings conterminous with the sixth head.
“The best solution to the identity of the seven kings is the view that the seven kings represent seven successive Gentile world powers or kingdoms, followed by the Antichrist as the eighth king. This interpretation is supported by the parallels between Revelation 17:9-12 and Daniel 7:17, 23, where references to kings and kingdoms are interchangeable, thus revealing that a king represents the kingdom he rules. Adopting this interpretation, the eight kingdoms are the eight Gentile world powers that encompass the sweep of history: Egypt, Assyria, Neo-Babylonia, Persia, Greece, Rome, the reunited Roman Empire in a ten-king form, and the future kingdom of the beast or final world ruler who will emerge from the reunited Roman Empire.”9
Like so many mistaken Futurists, Hitchcock overlooks that John witnesses that the eight king “was” prior to the sixth king and reckoning the sixth king as the Roman empire does not allow for the Roman empire as the kingdom that is revived; Hitchcock conveyed a fallacy (see Identifying the Two-Horned Beast in the Revelation of John). Revelation 17 clearly affirms the eighth head as exercising its power prior to the time of the sixth king and will again after the short span of the seventh (Rev 17:8, 11); if Rome is perceived as the sixth king Hitchcock is forced to interpret the revival of either the Egyptian, Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, Persian, or Grecian empire as the eighth king, but not Rome. Hitchcock’s Futurist’s fallacy is only resolved by the progressive revelation that the kings in Revelation 17 must commence with Babylon, in correspondence with Daniel. Historicist have grasped this in more recent times,10 which reckons there are two other kings that arise after John’s time before the power of the eighth king is restored. Reckoning Rome as the sixth king, as Hitchcock and even some Historicists have, only allows for one more king before the last, the eighth, to rise and make war with Christ at his return (Rev 17:14; 19:20). Only the perception where Rome is the fourth king, of the five that were fallen, allows for the sixth king to correspond to the two-horned beast that makes an image, becoming the seventh king, before the eight king regains its power in correspondence with all the beasts in Revelation. Only the perception where Rome is the fourth king, of the five that were fallen, allows for correspondence between the wounding of the beast in Revelation 13:3 and the time the beast “is not” in Revelation 17:8, 11. Only the perception where Rome is the fourth king, of the five that were fallen, allows one to grasp the wounding and the “is not” phenomenon is the historical fulfillment of our modern separation of church and state and the rejoining of the two as the sine qua non of the seven kings, nay eight. While outside the scope of this essay the reconciliation of church and state is well on its way in America.
Returning to the issue of the structure of the 4 septets in the Revelation, Elliott’s interpretation that the opening of the first vial or plague of Revelation 16 was fulfilled in the 18th century by the French Revolution has not endured progressive revelation. Even the staunch Historicist, Alberto R. Treiyer, has conceded the seven vials are future, immediately preceding the return of Christ.
“While the first six trumpets were partial judgments (a third), only the last and seventh trumpet was expected to be definitive in connection with the coming of the Lord (Rev 11:18: God's wrath outpoured in the seven plagues, 16:1).”11
Treiyer concedes the progressive revelation that the seven vials fold over the seventh trumpet, or that they are restricted to the events of the seventh trumpet and final woe (Rev 11:14-19). An earlier 19th century Historicist, Uriah Smith, had come to the same conclusion that the vials were future, confined to the return of Christ.
“If these plagues are in the past, the image of the beast and his worship are in the past. If these are past, the two-horned beast, which makes this image, and all his work, are in the past. If these are past, then the third angel’s message, which warns us in reference to this work, is in the past; and if this is ages in the past, then the first and second messages which precede it were also ages in the past…. Under the fifth plague, men blaspheme God because of their sores, the same sores, of course, caused by the outpouring of the first plague. This shows that these plagues all fall upon one and the same generation of men, some being, no doubt swept off by each one, yet some surviving through the terrible scenes of them all. These plagues are the wine of God’s wrath without mixture, threatened by the third angel. (Revelation 14:10; 15:1.) Such language cannot be applied to any judgments visited upon the earth while Christ pleads with His Father in behalf of our fallen race. Therefore we must locate them in the future, when probation shall have closed…. Christ is then no longer a mediator. Mercy, which has long stayed the hand of vengeance, pleads no more. The servants of God are all sealed. What could then be expected but that the storm of vengeance should fall, and earth be swept with the besom of destruction.”12
Contemporary Historicist Hans K. LaRondelle also acknowledged the progressive revelation that the seven vials or plagues are folded over or recap the phenomenon of the seventh trumpet.
“The content of the seventh trumpet is unfolded in the seven bowls of God’s final judgment (chaps. 15-16). This is implied in the explicit numbering of the last three trumpets as the three “woes” on the earth dwellers (8:13).”13
Yet, Treiyer inflexibly holds to the perception the preceding 6 trumpets recap a significant part of the seven eras of the churches and the seven seals or sequentially recap the greater part of the period between the two advents of Christ, commencing with a judgment of the Roman empire. 14
“On the rank of historicism were Pr. Ty Gibson (Light Bearers Ministry with James Rafferty, another panelist in the symposium), and Dr. Alberto R. Treiyer (Adventist Distinctive Messages, Ph D in the University of Strasbourg, residing in NC). The difference between them is that Gibson follows Edwin Thiele and C. M. Maxwell when he connects the first trumpet with the fall of Jerusalem, while Treiyer follows the Protestant and Adventist historicist legacy that has Rome as the target of the judgments of God, from the beginning of our Christian dispensation to the end.”15
Treiyer’s perception is ascribed as inflexible in consideration that the traditional Protestant Historicist’s perception of the seven trumpets has not surmounted the exegetical and historical challenges of recent progressive revelation. Historicists Jon Hjorleifur Stefansson has chronicled this exegetical and historical challenge to the traditional Protestant Historicist’s perception in his master thesis to Andrews University: “From Clear Fulfillment to Complex Prophecy: the History of the Adventist Interpretation of Revelation 9, from 1833 to 1957.”16 The challenges to the traditional Protestant rendition concerns the commencement of the five months of the fifth trumpet and the termination of the time conveyed in Revelation 9:15, concerning the sixth trumpet. The dates of 1299 A.D. for the commencement and the 1840 for the termination have been challenged for some time concerning their accuracy and alternative dating has resulted, which has supported the progressive revelation that the trumpets are actually contemporaneous phenomenon, correspondent with our end times, in agreement with the framework of the pending judgment conveyed in the fifth and sixth seals of chapter 6, the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14. This work will not enter into the controversy concerning the starting and ending dates of the traditional Protestant rendition of the fifth and sixth trumpets as the controversy is not unlike the Preterist’s endless arguments over the which Roman emperors represent the seven, nay eight kings of Revelation 17:10; the endless debates are evidence that the Roman emperors do not fit the prophecy any more than the Muslims fit in the trumpets. In like manner, the debates will continue with the traditional Protestant rendition because the trumpets are not past historical events, but represent end time phenomenon in the framework of the judgment conveyed in the fifth and sixth seals of chapter 6, the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14. This work is a critique on Stefansson’s thesis to vindicate the more recent progressive revelation that refutes the traditional Protestant Historicist’s perception.
Considering the impending judgments conveyed in the fifth and sixth seals, Historicist Jon Paulien recognizes the significance of the framework as it pertains to the judgment scene in chapter 8 that introduces the sounding of the seven trumpets, at the opening of the seventh seal:
“The seven trumpets, like the churches and seals before them, are preceded by a view of the heavenly sanctuary (8:2-6). The scene in verse 2 is probably based on the fact that there were seven trumpet priests in the Old Testament cultus (1 Chr 15:24; Josh 6; cf. also 1QM 3:1-11; 7:7ff.). Their trumpet calls represented the prayers of God's people for deliverance in battle and forgiveness of sin (Num 10:8-10). Thus the prayers of the saints in Rev 8:3-5 are probably cries for deliverance from the oppression visited by their enemies as depicted in the seven seals…. Two basic ideas are portrayed in Rev 8:3-5, mediation and judgment…. This relationship is, perhaps, best understood by examining the apparent connection between the fifth seal and the introduction to the seven trumpets (Rev 8:3-5). In the fifth seal (Rev 6:9-11) John sees martyred souls under "the" altar crying out ‘How long, O Lord, the Holy and True One, do you not judge and avenge our blood upon those who live on the earth (tôn katoikountôn epi tês gês)?’ These souls are given white robes and told to rest a short while until ‘the number of their fellow servants and brothers who were to be killed as they had been was completed.’
“Since the question ‘how long’ is not really answered in the fifth seal, the reader anticipates that things will be clarified later on in the book. Thus it is not surprising that there are later references to numbered groups of God's people (chapter 7), prayer (8:3-5) and those who dwell on the earth (8:13; 11:10; 13:8,14, etc.). Very significant is the reference in Rev 8:13, which stands at the structural center of the seven trumpets. This verse indicates that the trumpet plagues fall on ‘those who live on the earth,’ the same group which was martyring the saints, referred to in 6:9-11 as the ‘souls under the altar.’ The spiritual connection between the trumpets and the fifth seal is made in Rev 8:3-5 where incense from the golden altar is mingled with ‘the prayers of the saints (tais proseuchais tôn hagiôn).’ This scene symbolizes Christ's intercession for His saints. He responds to their prayers by casting His censer to the earth, with frightful results.
“This connection between the altar of 6:9-11 and that of 8:3-5 indicates that the seven trumpets are God's response to the prayers of the saints for vengeance on those who have persecuted and martyred them. The martyrs were anxious for the judgment to begin but it was delayed until all the seals had been opened.
“In verse 5 the altar which receives the prayers of the saints becomes the source from which judgments are poured out on the wicked in response (cf. 9:13-15; 14:18-20 and 16:4-7). When the fire of purification from the altar contacts the earth, it provokes disasters. The same fire which purifies can also destroy. The censer of judgment and the censer of prayer become one. Thus the seven trumpets should be understood as God's judgment-response to the prayers of the martyrs, resulting in justice being done with respect to those who persecuted the saints.”17
Paulien’s work decisively renders the prayers of the saints in Revelation 8:3-5 as corresponding to the petitions or prayers of “the souls of them that were slain for the word of God” in Revelation 6:10 and the seven trumpets as the commencement of the judgment that was entreated by the souls slain for the word of God. Said correspondence is also affirmed by another Historicist, Ranko Stefanovic,18 cited below, who adds the seals and the trumpets are in the model of covenantal curses.
“The scene of the opening of the seven seals echoes the Hebrew Bible covenantal curses concept… In implementing the covenant curses, God used enemy nations, such as the Philistines, Moabites, Assyrians, and Babylonians, as instruments of his judgment (cf. Judg 2:13-14; Ps 106:40; Isa 10:5-6). The enemy nation would come and afflict the Israelites by plundering and destroying them. In most cases, these nations, while sent by God as the executor of judgment, overplayed their part and tried to destroy God's people. In their hopeless situation, the people of Israel would turn to God for deliverance. At this point, God responded to the prayers of his afflicted people and reversed the judgments on the enemy nation(s) in order to provide deliverance for his people (cf. Deut 32:41-43)…. This Hebrew Bible background clearly defines the context of the seals: the situation of the church in the hostile world. The opening of the first four seals describes in a symbolic presentation the judgments of God on the church unfaithful to the gospel (6:1-8). The scene of the fifth seal portrays the slain faithful at the base of the altar of burnt offering, crying to God for intervention and judgment on their oppressors and enemies….
“Thus the plea of the slain saints under the altar ‘must be seen as a legal plea in which God is asked to conduct a legal process leading to a verdict that will vindicate his martyred saints.’”19
Stefanovic maintains the seals represent, “the judgments of God on the church unfaithful to the gospel,” embodied by the horsemen of the seals, and the seven trumpets as the judgements upon them for exceeding their mandate and oppressing God’s faithful people.
“The foregoing discussion strongly suggests that the seven trumpets are heaven's response to the prayers of God's people for deliverance from their oppressors. While the scene of the sixth seal provides the saints with an assurance that the day is corning when God's ultimate judgments will visit their adversaries, the vision of the seven trumpet plagues gives an even more direct message: God is already judging the enemies of his faithful people. This makes the trumpet plagues preliminary judgments and the foretaste of the ultimate and final judgments to fall on the wicked as portrayed in Rev 15-16. The trumpet plagues are seen as mixed with mercy; the bowl plagues are expressed as the fullness of God's wrath unmixed with mercy (15:1).”20
Both Paulien’s and Stefanovic’s renditions are an attempt to observe a greater terminological and thematic correspondence than the traditional Protestant interpretation concerning the seals and trumpets, but continue to deny correspondence with the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14, which make the trumpets end time events. Paulien and Stefanovic failed to take into account that covenantal judgment conveyed in the seals and the trumpets begins at the house of God prior to judgment upon those who disavow Christ (1Pe 4:17-18), which blinded them to any further correspondence with the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14.21
“For the time [is come] that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if [it] first[begin] at us, what shall the end [be] of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?” 1 Peter 4:17-18
Paulien acknowledges the principle of 1 Peter 4:17-18 in his interpretation of the first trumpet:
“In the OT these judgments were covenant related, thus could be turned on God's own people when they broke the covenant (Deut 32:15-22). The later prophets, especially, applied the hail and fire of God's judgments more and more to Israel and Judah (Ps 80:8-16; Isa 28:2; Jer 11:16,17; 21:12-14; Ezek 15:65,7; 20:47,48)…. the first trumpet portrays a judgment of God, in response to the prayers of the saints, which falls on a portion of Satan's kingdom that may once have given allegiance to God's kingdom…. John intended his readers to see in the first trumpet the fate of the Jewish nation that had rejected Jesus as its Messiah.”22
And, inasmuch as the Papacy cannot be construed as fallen from moral rectitude, Babylon has greater resemblance with fallen Protestantism in the latter days, in the Laodicean condition of being “wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.”23 In acknowledging the four horsemen of the seals represent the oppression of the church Paulien and Sefanovic inadvertently conceded terminological and thematic correspondence with the sealing of the 144,000 and the three angels in chapter 14, insomuch as the martyrs slain by Babylon and the eighth king of Revelation 17 cannot be omitted as essential constituents of the intent of the fifth seal. Such correspondence supports the seven trumpets are end day phenomenon.
Further evidence that the trumpets have terminological and thematic correspondence with the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14 lies with the work of Historicists Kenneth A. Strand, Jon Paulien and Richard M. Davidson on the use of temple imagery in the Revelation. In his published dissertation to the University of South Africa, Johan Adraiaan Japp cited Paulien’s and the aforementioned Historicists’ work concerning John’s use of the “Hebrew cultus” in the Apocalypse.
“The temple imagery also shows a definite progression that moves in the first place from the ‘daily’ (tamid) intercession to the ‘yearly’ (yoma), corresponding with the first and second half of the book, and in the second place from the spring festivals to the autumn festivals of the cultic year, once again corresponding with the first and second half of the book.(39)”24
The object of Japp’s use of Paulien is to maintain that the phenomenon and symbolism in Revelation 8-9, 11 pertains to the “daily intercession” and indicates, in their perception, the seven trumpets represent the “new moon” observances between the spring and autumn festivals (Nu 10:1-10), which folds the trumpets considerably over the seven churches and seven seals.
“‘Trumpets’ Allusions in Rev. 8-9, 11… The seven trumpets in Revelation are reminiscent of the seven monthly new moon festivals which form a transition between spring and autumn feasts, and climaxes in the blowing of the trumpets on Rosh Hashanah.(73) Also, just as the feast of trumpets summoned Israel to prepare for the time of judgement at Yom Kippur, so the trumpets of Revelation highlight the approach of the antitypical Day of Atonement. The Autumn festivals of Trumpets, Yom Kippur and Tabernacles, could therefore be regarded as anticipations of the ultimate eschaton… It is interesting to note that the unsealing of the prophetic scroll of Revelation 10, which contains God's final message to the world (Rev. 10:7., 10), forms the dividing point for both the daily/yearly dyad, and the spring/autumn festivals dyad.”25
In such a rendition, the seven trumpets fold over the horsemen of the seals. This allows Paulien and Japp to continue to avoid correspondence between the seven trumpets and the sealing of the 144,000 in Revelation 7 and the three angels in chapter 14; their rendition allows for the interpretation that the trumpets are past historical events, as opposed to contemporary phenomenon. Yet, like the topic that judgment begins with the house of God, they overlook that the topic of trumpets does not first appear in Revelation 4:1, in support of their assertion that the seven trumpets represent “the seven monthlong religious year from Abib 1. to Tishri 1. (Num. 10:1-10).” The sounding of a trumpet appears first in chapter 1.
“I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.” Revelation 1:10-11
In correspondence with 1 Thessalonians 4:26 and Isaiah 58:1, Christ’s voice corresponds to the sounding of a trumpet and it is Christ who proclaims the letters to the seven churches, which rightly reveals the seven churches represent the seven monthlong religious months from Abib 1. to Tishri 1, when they are received as prophetic. Historicist Clinton Wahlen maintains the Historicist’s view of the seven churches is that they are prophetic (historical as well) and represent seven eras and by doing so inadvertently acknowledges the eras represent the seven months between the spring and autumn festivals.
“The letters to the seven churches are distinctly different from the New Testament epistles in that they come from Jesus Himself and, when viewed together as a group, display a stylized structure, chiastic symmetry, and universally applicable themes. These features suggest that the letters are concerned with more than matters of merely local interest to a few particular churches. The number seven also suggests comprehensiveness in terms of their scope and application. When compared with the subsequent series of sevens in the first half of the book, i.e., the seals and the trumpets both of which culminate with the end of the world, there exists every reason to understand the seven churches in a similar way. Furthermore, the fact that the letters are permeated with apocalyptic symbols and ideas gives us reason to conclude that, like the rest of Revelation, these chapters may be intended as prophetic. Jesus Himself seems to suggest a future, as well as a present, application for them (1:19). A brief comparison of the letters with church history confirms this suggestion.”26
Japp failed to realize his assertion is a fallacy; the seventh month of Tishri cannot be equated with the seven months prior in an attempt to fold Revelation 8-9, 11 over the seven churches and seals. In the Hebrew cultus the seven monthly new moon rituals were unmistakably not observed at the same time or in the same manner as the Feast of the Trumpets. Unlike the seven monthly new moon observances, the Feast of the Trumpets enjoined 10 days of penitence before the observance of the Day of Atonement, commencing the fifth of only seven holy convocations during the year.27
The zeal to fold Revelation 8-9, 11 over the seven churches and seals results in all sorts of misrepresentations such as witnessed in the work of Historicists, Ekkehardt Mueller. Mueller cites from Jon Paulien in his arguments for the considerable folding of the aforementioned.
“Jon Paulien argues that the protection of certain objects from destruction in Rev 7:1‑3 and Rev 9:4 ‘raises serious questions whether the trumpet series is to be related as an immediate sequel to the vision of chapter 7.’ The strongest parallel between Rev 7a and the trumpets is Rev 9:14, 16. In Rev 7a, God’s people are described, ‘in Rev 9 their demonic counterparts.’ Connections between the two passages include the concept of binding and losing, the appearance of four angels, and the concept of numbering a people. ‘The sixth trumpet is the exact historical counterpart of Revelation 7:1‑ 8 . . . The seven trumpets, therefore, do not follow the events of Revelation 7 in chronological order.’”28
To begin, Pauline neglects the principle a “house divided against itself shall not stand… if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?” Matthew 12:25-26. Demonic hordes are not going to torment men who refuse to repent and continue to, “worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood.” Revelation 9:20. Unquestionably, the horsemen of the sixth trumpet are a plague on those ordained to damnation and is the exact historical counterpart of Revelation 11:1-14. Fire, smoke and brimstone proceeds out of the mouth of the horsemen of the sixth trumpet that plagues and kills the wicked in conformity with the two witnesses.
“And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will.” Revelation 11:5-6
Furthermore, the preceding trumpet, the fifth, is plainly perceived as a judgment upon the church to separate those who are sealed from those who are not, in likeness with the phenomenon in Ezekiel 9 and in correspondence with, “judgment must begin at the house of God.” 1 Peter 4:17-18.
“And the LORD said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof. And to the others he said in mine hearing, Go ye after him through the city, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity: Ezekiel 9:4-5
“And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.” Revelation 9:3-4
Here we have the principle Paulien and Stefanovic conveyed concerning the covenantal curse concept where God used the heathen to chastise his people that resulted in refining a remnant: “In implementing the covenant curses, God used enemy nations, such as the Philistines, Moabites, Assyrians, and Babylonians, as instruments of his judgment (cf. Judg 2:13-14; Ps 106:40; Isa 10:5-6).”29 The fifth and sixth trumpet mirror the principle in 1 Peter 4:17-18; God uses those who disavow Christ to separate the wheat from the tares, the chosen from the reprobate and then he uses his chosen as a plague upon the impenitent, as his wrath upon them.
“Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion: for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass: and thou shalt beat in pieces many people: and I will consecrate their gain unto the LORD, and their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth.” Micah 4:13
“Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I will help thee, saith the LORD, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. Behold, I will make thee a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth: thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff.” Isaiah 41:14-15
“Thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, and against them that dwell in the midst of them that rise up against me, a destroying wind; will send unto Babylon fanners, that shall fan her, and shall empty her land: for in the day of trouble they shall be against her round about… Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul: be not cut off in her iniquity; for this is the time of the LORD'S vengeance; he will render unto her a recompence… The portion of Jacob is not like them; for he is the former of all things: and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: the LORD of hosts is his name. Thou art my battle axe and weapons of war: for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms.” Jeremiah 51:1-2, 6, 19-20
It is the power of the Spirit God’s messages goes forth and spiritually wars with the rebellious nations depicted in the sixth trumpet and chapter 11 of Revelation, which causes the eighth king in Revelation 17 to rise out of the abyss to silence them.30 And just when the beast appears to silence them, kills them, the seventh trumpet sounds, “and the dead in Christ shall rise first: we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.” 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; Revelation 19:14. Clearly, the prohibitions against harming those with the seal of God in the fifth trumpet cannot be divorced from God’s use of the heathen to separate the wheat from the tares, the chosen from the reprobate, nor can the principle of Matthew 12:25-26 be divorced from the phenomenon of the sixth trumpet; under such scrutiny, the fifth, nay the first five trumpets must represent God’s judgment on the church before he judges the reprobate in the sixth trumpet, in conformity with 1 Peter 4:17-18.
The traditional Protestant interpretation that the fifth and sixth trumpet represent the rise and fall of the Muslim world power falters nowhere with greater transparency than in their inability to render any coherence concerning the locusts’ prohibitions against harming men having, “the seal of God in their foreheads.” Revelation 9:4. In analyzing the Historicist Uriah Smith’s interpretation of the sealing, Stefansson remarks that Smith did not go much beyond what Josiah Litch and William Miller (the author and promulgator) had formulated concerning the seal of God in the fifth trumpet.
“Though both Miller and Litch had interpreted the various elements brought to view in command given to the locusts…. neither one had interpreted the seal of God in v. 4 as being of a more specific meaning than a marker of true Christians… Uriah Smith modified this interpretation… that… the seal of God in Rev 7… as the seventh-day Sabbath… and that those who have the seal of God were only there ‘by implication,’ and that neither prophecy nor history taught:
‘that those persons whom Abubeker charged his followers not to molest were in possession of the seal of God, or necessarily constituted the people of God. Who they were, and for what reason they were spared, the meager testimony of Gibbon does not inform us, and we have no other means of knowing; but we have every reason to believe that none of those who had the seal of God were molested, while another class, who emphatically had it not, were put to the sword.’100
“If Smith had had historical sources that had shown that Sabbath-keepers were especially spared by the Arab invaders, he would probably have dropped his caution. But since this did not appear to be the case, he warned against interpreting more than was explicitly stated in the text.”31
Smith added the seal of God, “as the seventh-day Sabbath,” but that there was no historical evidence the Muslims refrained from any such oppression. Such recanting and lack of historical evidence is to the discredit of the traditional Protestant rendition of the trumpets.
The Historicist’s hermeneutic that the seven churches represent seven eras between the advents maintains the Laodicean church epitomizes the “end of this age” and that the following three septets must also arrive at the “end of this age,” in order to sustain recapitulation as the structure; this work concedes this preconception. The object of this work is to vindicate that the placement of the “start” of the three following septets is at the seventh division of the antecedent septet, which was conceded by Alberto R. Treiyer concerning the vials or final plagues; the start of seven vials or final plagues is concurrent with the seventh trumpet.32 This work has taken the testimony of Paulien, Stefanovic and Japp that the trumpets are the response to the petitions of the souls under the altar to vindicate that trumpets cannot fold considerably over the seven churches and seven seals, inasmuch as the martyrs slain by Babylon and the eighth king of Revelation 17 cannot be omitted as essential constituents of the intent of the fifth seal. The trumpets cannot fold considerably over the churches and seals, inasmuch as the seventh month of Tishri cannot be equated with the seven months prior; it is the seven churches that actually represent the “new moon” observances between the spring and autumn festivals. The trumpets cannot fold considerably over the churches and the seals, insomuch as the prohibitions against harming those with the seals of God in Revelation's fifth trumpet establishes judgment upon God's house in correspondence with Ezekiel 9:4-5 and 1 Peter 4:17-18. Furthermore, the principle of Matthew 12:25-26 must be observed in interpreting the sixth trumpet; under such scrutiny, the fifth, nay the first five trumpets must represent God's judgment on the church before he judges the reprobate in the sixth trumpet. All the evidence supports the historical phenomenon depicted by the trumpets commence with the seventh seal in conformity with how the phenomenon of the seven vials or final plagues commence upon the blowing of the seventh trumpet. In such a perception, the trumpets maintain terminological and thematic correspondence as end day phenomenon with the sealing of the 144,000 and the three angels in Revelation 14.
This explains the symbolism of the white horse that a great number of Historicists attempt to apply to the church;33 the church goes forth “conquering, and to conquer”, but not in the first century and not for the gospel—but went forth “conquering, and to conquer” by their commerce and oppressed their brethren to enrich themselves, which is depicted by the spirit of the Laodicean church. The symbolism in the seals represents the provocation for covenantal judgments in the OT, the latter is corroborated by Japp.
“Because the Jews did not keep either the letter or the spirit of the sabbath year, which demanded the freeing of all Jewish slaves, without compensation, every seventh year, and the resting of the land from all agricultural activities, the principle of the sabbath year became the basis of punishment for Judah and Jerusalem(81). The principle of the Jubilee year prescribed that in addition to the freeing of all Israelite slaves and the resting of the land, the full restoration of all property to their original owners or their descendants.(82) In Daniel 9, the Jubilee, encapsulated in the prophetic number of 490 days, becomes the basis for a Messianic promise of release from the enslavement of sin, rest from the works of unbelief and complete restoration of the land to Israel.”34
James’s prophecy of the last days, below, conveys the self-indulgent and the prodigal materialist condition of the final Laodicean era, which is ordained to oppress their brethren depicted in the seals; Paulien, Stefanovic and other Historicist of their ilk concede the seals represent oppression of the church but mistakenly attribute it as stemming from those who disavow Christ, which does not withstand examination. God uses those who disavow Christ to refine the church under the trumpets.
“Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you.Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten. Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth. Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter. Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you. Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.” James 5:1-7
The oppression of the elect depicted by the four horsemen of the seals was founded on the Protestant reformation depicted in the era of Sardis, that sold, “the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shoes.” Amos 8:6.
“The wool trade was a major driver of enclosure (the privatisation of common land) in English agriculture, which in turn had major social consequences, as part of the British Agricultural Revolution.”35
Historian Alfred J. Toynbee wrote about this transition that fostered the modern industrial and commercial societies of today. Concerning the early transition Toynbee wrote:
“When we turn to investigate the industrial organisation of the time, we find that the class of capitalist employers was as yet but in its infancy. A large part of our goods were still produced on the domestic system. Manufactures were little concentrated in towns, and only partially separated from agriculture. The 'manufacturer, was, literally, the man who worked with his own hands in his own cottage. Nearly the whole cloth trade of the West Riding, for instance, was organised on this system at the beginning of the century.
“An important feature in the industrial organisation of the time was the existence of a number of small master-manufacturers, who were entirely independent, having capital and land of their own, for they combined the culture of small freehold pasture-farms with their handicraft….
“This system, however, was no longer universal in Arthur Young's time. That writer found at Sheffield a silk-mill employing 152 hands, including women and children; at Darlington 'one master-manufacturer employed above fifty looms'; at Boyton there were 150 hands in one factory. So, too, in the West of England cloth-trade the germs of the capitalist system were visible. The rich merchant gave out work to labourers in the surrounding villages, who were his employes, and were not independent.”36
According to economic and church Historian, Richard Henry Tawney, the matter of election was corrupted by Puritanism during the 17th century, which was underlying the cause of the oppression at issue.
“For, since conduct and action, though availing nothing to attain the free gift of salvation, are a proof that the gift has been accorded, what is rejected as a means is resumed as a consequence, and the Puritan flings himself into practical activities with the demonic energy of one who, all doubts allayed, is conscious that he is a sealed and chosen vessel. Once engaged in affairs, he brings to them both the qualities and the limitation of his creed in all their remorseless logic. Called by God to labor in his vineyard, he has within himself a principle at once of energy and of order, which makes him irresistible both in war and in the struggles of commerce. Convinced that character is all and circumstances nothing, he sees in the poverty of those who fall by the way, not a misfortune to be pitied and relieved, but a moral failing to be condemned, and in riches, not an object of suspicion—though like other gifts they may be abused—but the blessing which rewards the triumph of energy and will. Tempered by self-examination, self-discipline, self-control, he is the practical ascetic, whose victories are won not in the cloister, but on the battlefield, in the counting-house, and in the market.”37
The Reformation had removed the stigma from wealth, but Puritanism reversed the circumstances to place the stigma on poverty as if it were a curse from God, “a moral failing to be condemned,” which gave them license to exploit and oppress their brethren.38 Toynbee and Tawney wrote about the era of the church of Sardis, who was warned to repent or Christ would come upon them like a thief in the night. Revelation 3:1-6. Covenantal curses require a warning before judgment (Am 3:7), and the warning was fulfilled by the era of the Philadelphian church, which is rendered fairly by the Historicist, Austin Cooke.
“At what time, then, did the Philadelphian period commence? The timeframe covered by Sardis, the fifth church, was that of the Reformation and post- Reformation churches, concluding in approximately 1750. This position has been generally held by most scholars through the years.”39
Cooke has the Philadelphian era commence with the Great Awakenings, with men like John Wesley who:
“attacked the legal, political and religious corruption of the day…
“They abolished child slavery – the cruel system of child labour. The individual prominent in this reform was Lord Shaftesbury, a product of the Revival…
“They attacked bribery and smuggling - the curse of English life - and engaged in a remarkable ministry to the poverty-stricken, who were the vast majority of the population.”40
Yet, the Great Awakenings abated, while the Protestant penchant for exploiting their brethren did not and became the spirit of the final era, the Laodicean era. All one has to do is cursory investigation that attests the abuse of child labor continued well into the 20th century in America and was upheld in a Supreme Court decisions under the right to contract in 1918.41
One final issue must be attended to and that is the time constituents in the fifth and sixth trumpets, which causes heated debate when correspondence is maintained with the 144,000 and the three angles of chapter 14. Uriah Smith broached the issue some time ago concerning Revelation 10:6.
“‘Time No Longer.’ What is the meaning of this most solemn declaration? It cannot mean that with the message of this angel, time, as computed in this world, in comparison with eternity, should end. The next verse speaks of the days of the voice of the seventh angel, and Revelation 11: 15-19 gives us some of the events to take place under this trumpet in the present state. It cannot mean probationary time, for that does not cease until Christ closes His work as priest, which is not until after the seventh angel has begun to sound. (Revelation 11: 15, 15: 5-8.) It must therefore mean prophetic time, for there is no other to which it can refer…. In other words, prophetic time shall be no more not that time should never be used in a prophetic sense, for the "days of the voice of the seventh angel" spoken of immediately after, doubtless mean the years of the seventh angel. It means, rather, that no prophetic period should extend beyond the time of this message.”42
Smith was correct that prophetic time comes to an end at the uttering of the seven thunders and prior to the seventh trumpet, which represents a year-for-a-day is no longer calculated concerning time in the sevent trumpets. Two witnesses have come to the conclusion that the Gentiles were given 40 Jubilee cycles, or 1960 years from the time of Christ, inasmuch as prophetic time is calculated prior to the aforesaid days of the seventh angel;43 one must conclude this age represents the “times of the Gentiles” in Luke 21:24 and Romans 11:25. While their calculations differ by one year, 1994 appears to be the most plausible. As a result, the time constituents in the fifth and sixth trumpets are able to be dealt with some assurance, which as stated above, cannot be dealt with now for the sake of brevity and will be dealt with in a forthcoming book.
1 William G. Moorehead, Studies in the Book of Revelation, The United Presbyterian Board of Pub., 1908, Kindle ed., Location 352, “A second significant phase of the structure of Revelation deserves careful scrutiny. It may be called the plan of recapitulation, or better, perhaps, parallelism. What is meant is this: the chief series of visions, e. g., the Seals, Trumpets, and Vials, do not succeed each other in historical and chronological sequence, but move side by side. They do not all have the same starting-point, but they all arrive at the same goal; namely, the final consummation…. James Smith calls the process "folding back” i. e., each vision as it is introduced and described folds back upon the vision which precedes it. In other words, the process is that of contemporaneousness, and not that of succession at all, as so many interpreters of the book have thought.”
2 Henry Carre Tucker, Brief historical explanation of the Revelation of St. John, According to the 'Horæ Apocalypticæ' of the Rev. E.B. Elliott, London: James Nisbet & Co., “THE FIRST SEAL…. the first symbol, under which the Roman people was represented to his view, was one of triumph, prosperity, and health…. The First Trumpet… The first four trumpets are connected together by marked features of resemblance, depicting, under successive emblems, the fearful desolations which God would bring by the Gothic and other barbarian nations upon the land, and sea, and rivers of the Western Empire, terminating in the extinction of its political luminaries…. The plague-boil, which broke out over the Papal countries on the pouring out of the first vial, appears to represent that tremendous outbreak of moral and social evil, that mixture of atheism, vice, and democratic fury, which burst forth at the French Revolution.”
3 E. B. Elliott, Horae Apocalypticae, Vol. IV, “The eighth head of the Beast is the imaginary revived Nero. - But do they not explain the Beast (the revived Beast) in Apoc. xiii., and his blasphemies, and persecution of the saints, and predicated continuance 42 months, of the real original Nero, and his blasphemies and his three or four years persecution of the Christians, begun November, 64, A.D. and ended with Neros death, June 9, A.D. 68? Such indeed is the case; and by this palpable self-contradiction, (one which however they cannot do without,) they give to their own solution its death-wound: as much its death-wound, I may say, as that given to the Beast itself to which the solution relates…. Nor shall I stop to expose sundry other absurdities that might easily be shown to attach to it: e.g. the supposed figuration of the fall of the Pagan Roman empire in the fall of the individual emperor Nero, albeit succeeded by Pagan emperors like himself.”
4Oral E. Collins, Ph.D, The Interpretation of Biblical Prophecy, http://www.historicism.com/Collins/interp.htm
5 Ibid, n. "1. For an excellent reading on this, see H. Grattan Guinness, 'Progressive Interpretation,' The Approaching End of the Age (New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1884), pp. 79-138."
7 Daniel B. Wallace, Th.M., Ph.D., New Testament Eschatology in the Light of Progressive Revelation: Special Focus on the Coming Kingdom, https://bible.org/article/new-testament-eschatology-light-progressive-revelation
8Mark L. Hitchcock, A Critique of the Preterist View of Revelation 17:9-11 and Nero, BiBLiOTHECA SACRA 164 (October-December 2007): 472-85
10 Few Historicists commence the five fallen kings in Revelation 17 with Babylon. Here are a few websites that hold the view: temcat at http://www.temcat.com/006-prophetic-history/Sequence-Rev17.pdf
Ulrike Unruh at http://dedication.www3.50megs.com/revelation17.html
David Barron at http://www.thethirdangelsmessage.com/the-7-kings-of-revelation-17-correcting-the-misinterpretation
11Alberto R. Treiyer’s review of Heidi Heiks’: Satin’s Counterfeit Prophecy, http://www.adventistdistinctivemessages.com/English/Documents/Heikstrumpetsreviewed.pdf
12 Uriah Smith, Daniel and the Revelation, Review and Herald 1882, pg. 278-279
13 Hans K. LaRondelle, The Trumpets in the Contexts, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 8/1–2 (1997): 82–89
14 Alberto R. Treiyer’s review of Dr. Ekkehardt Mueller, BRI, DIE SIEBEN POSAUNEN [THE SEVEN TRUMPETS], http://www.adventistdistinctivemessages.com/English/Documents/DiesiebenPosaunen-reviewed.pdf, “I agree that the septet series of the churches, the seals, and the trumpets all embrace the whole Christian dispensation. But we have to be more concerned with the theological and historical purpose of these visions, rather than delve into formal literary and structural parallelisms presumed by the interpreter.”
15 Alberto R. Treiyer, SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRUMPETS OF REVELATION, http://www.adventistdistinctivemessages.com/English/Documents/Symposiumtrumpets3ABN.pdf
16 Jon Hjorleifur Stefansson, From Clear Fulfillment to Complex Prophecy: the History of the Adventist Interpretation of Revelation 9, from 1833 to 1957, http://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=theses
17 Jon Paulien, Interpreting the Seven Trumpets, A Paper Prepared for the Daniel and Revelation Committee of the General Conference of SDAs March 5-9, 1986, http://www.thebattleofarmageddon.com/7trumpets_pdf/Interpreting%20the%20Seven%20Trumpets2.pdf
18 Ranko Stefanovic, The Angel at the Altar (Revelation 8:3-5): A Case Study on Intercalations in Revelation, Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 44.1 (2006) “John the Revelator did not find it necessary to identify the first altar in 8:3, but rather the second one (τὸ θυσιαστήριον τὸ χρυσοῦν). The first one he refers to simply as τὸ θυσιαστήριον ("the altar") without qualification. The reason for that could be that he had in mind the altar previously mentioned in the book, namely, the one in the scene of the fifth seal (6:9-11), beneath which the slain martyrs prayed to God for vindication: "How long, 0 Lord, holy and true, will you not judge and avenge our blood upon those who dwell on the earth"? (my translation). The angel in 8:3 seems to be standing at the same θυσιαστήριον under which the blood of the slain martyrs, which had been poured out, was crying for vindication….
“It thus appears that the clue to the full theological meaning of Rev 8:3-5 lies in the scene of the fifth seal in which the slain martyrs at the base of the altar of burnt offering are praying to God for vindication and judgment on their enemies (6:9-11). Thus the scene of 8:3-5 builds on the preceding scene of 6:9-11.”
21 Historicist Ellen G. White had to concede in The Great Controversy, Review and Herald, 1888, pg. 480: “So in the great day of final atonement and investigative Judgment, the only cases considered are those of the professed people of God. The judgment of the wicked is a distinct and separate work, and takes place at a later period. “Judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel?” 1 Peter 4:17.” The Great Controversy, Review and Herald, 1888, pg. 480
22 Jon Paulien, Interpreting the Seven Trumpets, A Paper Prepared for the Daniel and Revelation Committee of the General Conference of SDAs March 5-9, 1986, http://www.thebattleofarmageddon.com/7trumpets_pdf/Interpreting%20the%20Seven%20Trumpets2.pdf
23 Historicist Ellen G. White had to concede in The Great Controversy, Review and Herald, 1888, pg. 383: “The message of Revelation 14, announcing the fall of Babylon must apply to religious bodies that were once pure and have become corrupt. Since this message follows the warning of the judgment, it must be given in the last days; therefore it cannot refer to the Roman Church alone, for that church has been in a fallen condition for many centuries. Furthermore, in the eighteenth chapter of the Revelation the people of God are called upon to come out of Babylon. According to this scripture, many of God's people must still be in Babylon. And in what religious bodies are the greater part of the followers of Christ now to be found? Without doubt, in the various churches professing the Protestant faith.”
24 Johan Adraiaan Japp, The Study of Atonement in Seventh-day Adventism, published dissertation to the University of South Africa, pg. 196 http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/17008/dissertation_japp_ja.pdf?sequence=3
25 Ibid., pg. 206
26 Clinton Wahlen, Letters to the Seven Churches: historical or prophet?, published in Ministry magazine, November 2007: 12-15
27 Schalk and Elsa Klee, You Shall Have a Holy Convocation, http://www.setapartpeople.com/you-shall-have-a-holy-convocation, “As we said before, we are commanded to have a holy convocation on Sabbath and almost all the other appointed times. There are exactly eight commanded holy convocations in Scripture: the Sabbath, the Feast of Unleavened bread – first and seventh day, Shavuot, Yom T’ruah, Yom Kippurim, and Sukkot – first day and eighth day. The Hebrew word “miqra” is translated as convocation. This word “miqra” is used 23 times in Scripture and is, almost always except for two references, used in the context of the Sabbath and the feasts. As “miqra” is predominantly used with the word “moed” or appointed time, we shall first look at the meaning of this word for context.”
28 Ekkehardt Mueller, Recapitulation in Revelation 4–11, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 9/1-2 (1998): 260–277, (n. Jon Pauline, Decoding Revelation’s Trumpets: Literary Allusions and Interpretations of Revelation 8:7-12, Andrews University Seminary Doctoral Dissertation Series, vol. xi (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews UP, 1988), 196-197.)
29 Ranko Stefanovic, The Angel at the Altar (Revelation 8:3-5): A Case Study on Intercalations in Revelation, Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 44.1 (2006)
30 Paulien and Stefanovic hold the prophecy of the two witnesses in Revelation 11 was fulfilled at the French Revolution. Such a perception is untenable as it would have the persecuting power of the Papacy reborn at the very time they hold it was wounded. This has been the bane of Historicists of their ilk for some time. (Ranko Stefanovic, Two Witnesses video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsy0KAp2gP0, “. “Friends, there is only one political entity that fits the history, that literally, made the war with the religion, which the church, and with the Bible, that fits the historical context and that’s France and the French revolution… This prophecy of Revelation Chapter eleven was actually, accurately fulfilled in the events of the French revolution.”)
(Jon Paulien, The Twitter Commentary on Revelation, http://www.thebattleofarmageddon.com/twitter_pdf/Twitter%20Comm%20on%20Rev%2011.pdf, “One historical option for interpreting the beast coming up from the abyss is the events of the French Revolution.”)
31 Jon Hjorleifur Stefansson, From Clear Fulfillment to Complex Prophecy: the History of the Adventist Interpretation of Revelation 9, from 1833 to 1957, nn. Smith, Daniel and the Revelation, 475-476. http://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=theses
32 Alberto R. Treiyer’s review of Heidi Heiks’: Satin’s Counterfeit Prophecy, http://www.adventistdistinctivemessages.com/English/Documents/Heikstrumpetsreviewed.pdf, “While the first six trumpets were partial judgments (a third), only the last and seventh trumpet was expected to be definitive in connection with the coming of the Lord (Rev 11:18: God's wrath outpoured in the seven plagues, 16:1).”
33 Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Vol. VII, Review and Herald Pub., 1977, p. 776, “Thus the first horseman is taken to represent a time when the people of God lived in a world characterized by military conquest and dominion, when Rome, going forth “conquering, and to conquer,” maintained the leading world power. Seventh-day Adventists have generally held that the first horse represents the church in the apostolic age.”
34 Johan Adraiaan Japp, The Study of Atonement in Seventh-day Adventism, published dissertation to the University of South Africa, pg. 37 http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/17008/dissertation_japp_ja.pdf?sequence=3
35 Wikipedia, Medieval English Wool Trade, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_English_wool_trade
36 Arnold J Toynbee, The Industrial Revolution in England, Beacon press, 1956, pg. 25 https://archive.org/details/industrialrevol00toyngoog
37 R.H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1926, pg. 191
38 Historicist Ellen G. White conveyed the same mindset concerning the Pharisees: “On their way to the temple, they had given vent to their hatred, and had said that they would kill Him, and be rid of the troubler. When they asked for a sign, Jesus said, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” Their hearts were full of avarice and selfishness, they had oppressed the widow, the fatherless, and the poor, and had refused to give them an offering at the small price which they could pay. When the poor had presented their affliction to them, they had turned away as unfeeling as though the afflicted had no souls to save. They had pointed the finger of scorn at them, speaking vanity, and charging the poor with sin, declaring that their suffering and poverty was a curse from God on account of their transgression.” Manuscript 37, 1894, paragraph 12
39 Austin Cooke, The Evangelical revival of Philadelphia, http://www.thesourcehh.org/pdf/Revelation/Cooke_Austin-Exposition_of_Revelation-Topic_5-Philadelphia.pdf
41 William Carey Jones, September 1918 Child Labor Decision, http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4050&context=californialawreview “Now, after exhaustive investigation,12 displaying an intensity of interest in the subject and a thoroughness of preparation unusual in our legislative methods, Congress passed the Child Labor Law of 1916. An especial effort was made to keep the terms of the statute within strictly constitutional bounds. The validity of the act was contested in a Federal District Court in North Carolina and the law was held unconstitutional, no opinion being written. The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court and a decision thereon was rendered on June 3, 1918.13 The decision of the lower court was sustained by a vote of five to four, and the act was thus by final authority declared null and void. The position of Mr. Justice Day, who spoke for the majority, is that the act is not an act to regulate commerce among the states, but is an attempt to regulate the hours of labor of children in factories and mines within the states, and is therefore an unlawful interference with powers reserved to the states. ‘Thus the act in a two-fold sense is repugnant to the Constiution. It not only transcends the authority delegated to Congress over commerce, but it also exerts a power as to a purely local matter to which the federal authority does not extend.’”
42 Uriah Smith, Daniel and Revelation, Review and Herald Publishing, 2006, pg. 209
43 Stephen Jones, The Millennial Question, http://gods-kingdom-ministries.net/teachings/books/creations-jubilee/chapter-1-the-millennium-question/, “The types and shadows of Scripture seem to indicate that the Pentecostal Age was meant to last for about 40 Jubilee cycles, or 1960 years (49 x 40). A Jubilee time cycle is 49 years. The Jubilee year was the fiftieth year, but that was also the first year of the next Jubilee cycle. God measures time in sevens, and so 40 Jubilees of time would be 1960 years. It may be, then, that the Pentecostal Age, which began in 33 AD, began to come to a close in 1993 in preparation for a greater Age to come under the anointing of Tabernacles.”
Larry Wilson, Appendix A - The Importance of 1994, https://www.wake-up.org/end-times-prophecy/jesus-final-victory-book/appendix-a-the-importance-of-1994.html, “God raised up a brilliant young Jew, Saul of Tarsus, and made him an apostle to the Gentiles in A.D. 34. As a result, the Christian church soon had more Gentile believers in it than Jewish converts. Because there is a New Covenant, the Christian church did not displace Israel; it replaced Israel as trustee. God abolished the Old Covenant by creating a New Covenant. This redefined Israel. Believers in Jesus are now the heirs of Abraham. History confirms that God granted forty Jubilee cycles to the Gentiles! (A.D. 34 to 1994)”