Two House Chronicles
Babylon, the Mother of Harlots
- Category: evaluation
- Published: Tuesday, 05 September 2017 16:39
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By Hope Helen, Marsue and Jerry Huerta
In analyzing the Revelation through the Historicist’s lens (the wounded head in Rev 13:3 fulfilled by the 1260 years old Papacy) the conclusion was reached that the metaphor of the woman in chapters 12 and 17 represent the same entity. In support, the church is anthropomorphized corporately as a virtuous woman in 2 Corinthians 11:2, Matthew 25:1-4 and Revelation 14:4, similar to the Old Testament (Isa 62:5; Jer 14:17; 31:4, 13). Further, the woman Babylon is prophesied to fall in Revelation 7 and 14, which is also conveyed concerning the corporate church in the last days in such New Testament texts as Matthew 24:12, 2 Thessalonians 2:2-3 and 1 Timothy 4:1-3. The woman in chapter 12 is initially observed in heaven but afterwards falls to the earth, in flight to the wilderness of the earth to escape persecution from the dragon—which some Historicists have rendered as
In the corporate abstract, whence did Babylon fall; ancient Babylon never attained moral rectitude; the city’s origin was pagan. This perception is also applicable to the Old Testament’s Jezebel. In juxtapose, the OT expressed a fall from moral rectitude in Israel’s marriage metaphor (Isa 50:1; Jer 3:1, 8; Eze 16:15); in the corporate abstract, a great falling away was prophesied by the song of Moses in Deuteronomy 31-32. Furthermore, The fall of the woman in Revelation 12 corresponds to the OT motif of “the unfaithful, divorced wife returned to her first husband” (Hos 2; Isa 50:1; 54:4; Jer 3:12-14)—conflated with chastisement and the trial by fire-adversity in Malachi and Paul (Mal 3:1-5; 1Co 3:9-15). And as previously stated, the return of the wife violates Deuteronomy 24:4, which was provided for by Christ’s death and resurrection according to Romans 7:1-4.
It was concluded in the chapter about the proper rendering of the apocalypse that John was taken by the Spirit into the future to witness the harlot women in Revelation 17 entering the final judgment, and from this perspective, the sixth king of verse 10 “is”. From this future perspective,The woman in Revelation 17 represents apostate Protestantism during the prophetic eras depicted by the last churches, especially the final era of Laodicea (Rev 3:14-22). The woman is depicted as highly attached to her affluence and her corrupt merchants during this era, which is easily seen as the Protestant’s far-reaching corrupt influence on capitalism in the 19th through 21st centuries. The fallen commerce associated with the woman falls right into place as the exploitation of the poor to enrich the merchants at the height of the Industrial Revolution, foreseen also by James.
“Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten. Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth. Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter. Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you.” James 5:1-6
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Reformed theologian, Mark A. Noll, acknowledges that disestablishment was beneficial as well as injurious. (The knowledge of good and evil was set in Genesis 3:22).
“This combination of revivalism and disestablishment had effects whose importance cannot be exaggerated. Analyzed positively, the combination gave the American churches a new dynamism, a new effectiveness in fulfilling the Great Commission, and a new vitality in bringing the gospel to the people. Analyzed negatively, the combination of revivalism and disestablishment meant that pragmatic concerns would prevail over principle.”17
The list of benefits by individualists is as long as the reproaches of even greater tyranny in the form of exploitation of the poor and class stratification; the latter is what Burnham is driving at in her expression “monstrous possibilities.” Noll addresses these monstrous possibilities as untrammeled or “liberal economic practices.”
“By ‘liberal’ in the context of the nineteenth century, historians mean the tradition of individualism and the market freedom associated with John Locke and especially Adam Smith…. The point again is not whether evangelicals should have embraced liberal economic practice, for a case can be made for the compatibility between evangelical Christianity and moderate forms of market economy. The point is rather how evangelical embraced liberal economic practice. Again this was done without a great deal of thought… The most important economic questions of the day dealt with the early growth of industrialization. How would the growth of large industries, first in textiles and then in railroads, affect community life or provisions for the disabled, aged, and infirm? Each of these questions, and many more like them, posed a potential threat to Christian witness and to public morality. Each of them was also the sort that could be answered only by those who had thought through principles of Scripture, who had struggle to see how the truths of creation, fall, and redemption applied to groups as well as to individuals. Unfortunately, there was very little of such thinking. These problems developed pretty much under their own steam and received little specific attention from Christians wrestling with the foundations of economic thought and practice.”18
The benefits of liberal economics are touted by those who give little thought about their injurious effects. Noll maintains the injurious effects could have been avoided, “by those who had thought through principles of Scripture;” even so, history affirms they were not avoided because the “principles of Scripture” were disregarded by secular capitalism. Historian, Eric J. Hobsbawm expresses a number of “negative” observations regarding the consequences of the disestablishment in his book, The Age of Capitalism. Hobsbawm held that one of those “negative” effects was the demotion of the wife in the Puritan family at the beginning of the 19th century.
“Buttressed by clothes, walls and objects, there was the bourgeois family, the most mysterious institution of the age. For, if it is easy to discover or to devise connections between Puritanism and capitalism, as a large literature bears witness, those between nineteenth-century family structure and bourgeois society remain obscure. Indeed the apparent conflict between the two has rarely even been noticed. Why should a society dedicated to an economy of profit-making competitive enterprise, to the efforts of the isolated individual, to equality of rights and opportunities and freedom, rest on the institution which so totally denied all of these?
“Its basic unit, the one-family household, was both a patriarchal autocracy and microcosm of the sort of society which the bourgeoise as a class (or its theoretical spokes-men) denounced and destroyed: a hierarchy of personal dependence… Below him—to continue quoting the Proverbial Philosophers Martin Tupper, there fitted ‘the good angel of the house, the mother, wife and mistress’ whose work, according to the great Ruskin, was:
‘I To please people
II To feed them in dainty ways
III To clothe them
IV to keep them orderly
V To teach them,
“A task for which, curiously, she was required to show, or to possess, neither intelligence for knowledge (‘be good sweet maid and let who will be clever, as Charles Kingsley put it). This was not merely because the new function of the bourgeois wife, to show off the capacity of the bourgeois husband to keep her in leisure and luxury, conflicted with the old functions of actually running a household, but also because her inferiority to the man must be demonstrable.”19
Hobsbawm was correct; religion lost ground to secularism commencing late in the 18th century and has wreaked havoc with family values since; Hobsbawm associated this with the demotion of the Puritan wife; he obviously alludes to decadence; affluence corrupted the Puritan family man as well as the Puritan wife. Here, Hobsbawm inadvertently stumbled onto one of the themes in ancient goddess worship, which depicts the plight of the church in the hands of Protestantism, especially the dissident Puritans, which will be analyzed shortly. The demotion of the Puritan wife illustrates the dissident Puritans’ success in having the woman-church demoted at disestablishment. The church meretriciously cooperated with her demotion, consoled with leisure and luxury; viz., the dissident Puritans successfully changed the perception that the church contributed knowledge and intelligence in running civil society into one in which she was kept in leisure and luxury for her cooperation with their enterprises. This is depicted in Revelation 17 by the fornication of the woman with the kings of the earth and her compensation of leisure and luxury. Hobsbawm also observed the Papacy resisted “progress,” and disestablishment was Protestant progress.
“Anti-clericalism was militantly secularist, in a much as it wanted to deprive religion of any official status in society (‘disestablishment of the church’, ‘separation of church and state’), leaving it a purely private matter. It was to be transformed into one of several purely voluntary organizations, analogous to clubs of stamp-collectors only doubtless larger. But this was based not so much on the falsity of the belief in God or any particular version of such belief, but on the growing administrative capacity, scope and ambition of the secular state—even in its most liberal and laissez-faire form—which was bound to expel private organizations from what was not considered its field of action. However, basically anti-clericalism was political, because the chief passion behind it was the belief that established religions were hostile to progress. And so indeed they were, being both sociologically and politically very conservative institutions. The Roman Catholic Church indeed, had nailed hostility to all that the mid-nineteenth century stood for firmly to its mast… And, in so far as the masses—especially the rural masses—were still in the political reaction, their power had to be broken, if progress was not to be in jeopardy.”20
Hobsbawm validated that disestablishment, anti-clericalism, secularization and liberal economics are Protestant, while anti-liberal Roman Catholic mindsets dominated Latin America, Spain and Portugal. This vindicates the “spirit of capitalism” is disestablishment, insomuch as it promoted liberal economics, capitalism and then the Industrial Revolution, while the anti-liberal mindset kept the Roman Catholic societies economically staggering behind the Protestant nations for centuries.
Returning to the relevance of goddess worship, the lascivious Babylonian goddess Ishtar (Inanna was her Sumerian counterpart) was depicted riding a beast in myth, along with other parallels that have moved many scholars to support her relevance in determining the woman of Revelation 17. One such scholar is the director of Biblical studies at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Tikva Frymer-Kensky, in her book, In wake of Goddess. Frymer-Kensky’s research revealed other parallels, one of which Hobsbawm accidentally stumbled upon in his account of the demotion of Puritan wife at disestablishment. Frymer-Kensky affirms that, “the relationship between the gods,” was, “both mirror of and model for human social relationships.”21
“The eclipse of the goddesses was undoubtedly part of the same process that witnessed a decline in the public role of women, with both reflective of fundamental changes in society that we cannot yet specify. The existence and power of a goddess, particularly of Ishtar, is no indication or guarantee of a high status for human women. In Assyria, where Ishtar was so prominent, women were not… The world by the end of the second millennium was a male's world, above and below; and the ancient goddesses have all but disappeared.”22
Frymer-Kensky found Israel’s marriage metaphor (or the Church’s for that matter), did not mirror the Israelite marriage, as the goddess myth mirrored the “patriarchal autocracy” of the heathen.23 Yet she also found, in exile they were overwhelmed by heathen autocratic, patriarchal pressure. In exile, their conquerors wreaked havoc with Israel’s family values, just as secularism did with the Puritan household according to Hobsbawm. Finding a vacuum of “gender talk” in Torah, Frymer-Kensky held that this vacuum was filled by the “patriarchal autocracy” of their conquerors.
“After the exile, as Israel encountered other cultural traditions, the vacuum became more noticeable; it was ultimately filled by the introduction of Hellenistic misogyny and sexual phobia into the biblical tradition. The influence of these ideas on the newly emerging Christianity was very powerful…. promotion of the patriarchal household and the power of the paterfamilias… became more patriarchal; as it became Roman, the process intensified. Emerging Christianity incorporated these misogynistic and antierotic themes and made them central to its ideas about human existence.”24
Is it an accident that Hobsbawm’s meretricious account of the demotion of the Puritan or Protestant wife, due to financial success, following disestablishment and secularization—mirrors the prophets’ motif of the “unfaithful, divorced wife returned to her first husband” (Hos 2; Isa 50:1; 54:4; Jer 3:12-14)? The woman in Revelation 17 represents corporate apostasy—the Great falling away prophesied in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 and 2 Timothy 3:4 (Lk 8:11-13; 1Ti 4:1-4; Heb 3:12-14). Through anthropomorphism, Hosea 2 and Ezekiel 16 prophesied of Israel’s initial chastity and subsequent fall from fidelity, condemned and punished for their corporate harlotry, but ultimately redemption is promised for a contrite remnant (Deut 30:1-10).25 This is easily seen in the narrative of the Revelation; viz., the woman is witnessed in heaven, representing her chastity, falls to the wilderness, representing her subsequent fall in leaving her first love (Rev 2:5-6), and seen later in “leisure and luxury,” after having fornicated with the kings and during the supremacy of the sixth king. In the final illustration, the woman is refined by persecution and “trial by fire” (vs. 16-17), in fulfillment of Malachi 3:1-5 and 1 Corinthians 3:9-15 (Rev 17:16-17); fire being a metaphor for trial or judgment (Ps 66:12; Isa 43:2; 1Pt 1:7; 4:12, 17). In similitude, the Babylonian goddesses Ishtar abides in heaven and her fornication engenders a lurid fall into hell and death, ending with her resurrection and restoration to heaven. Both employ the “mortification will only be temporary” motif, which corresponds with the “unfaithful, divorced wife returned to her first husband” in scripture (Isa 54).
Inanna/Ishtar was ultimately used to promote the societal acceptance that prosperity could be obtained through religion, empire, raising the status of the merchants and facilitating war; her symbolism conveyed the sophistication of an ideology. This is substantiated in Daniel Timmer’s book, Cultural Imperialism and American Protestant Missionaries: Collaboration and Dependency in Mid-Nineteenth-Century China; he held that there was a symbiosis of “religion, warfare and economic activity” in the goddess myth that mirrored the society of the Assyrian empire.
“The threat in 3:4-7 describes Nineveh in terms of prostitution and sorcery. Given Assyria’s strong interest in various deities and mode of divination, the emphasis on sorcery is understandable. The parallel characterization of a harlot draws in part on Nineveh’s attractiveness (טֹ֥ובַת חֵ֖ן ‘charming’), and both comparisons probably reflect the symbiosis of Assyrian religion, warfare, and economic activity.”26
The “economic activity” is easily related as the “multiplied merchants” of the harlot in Nahum, representing the Assyrian Empire.
“Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the wellfavoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts. Behold, I [am] against thee, saith the Lord of hosts…. Thou hast multiplied thy merchants above the stars of heaven: the cankerworm spoileth, and flieth away. Thy crowned [are] as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers, which camp in the hedges in the cold day, [but] when the sun ariseth they flee away, and their place is not known where they [are].” Nahum 3:4-5, 16-17
Professor at the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Botswana, Laurel Lanner, also researched Inanna/Ishtar as the goddess referred to in Nahum 3:4, “that selleth nations through her whoredoms,” which symbolized Neo-Assyrian marketing that prosperity could be obtained through religion, empire, raising the status of the merchants and facilitating war.
“Eaton considers that בַּעֲלַ֣ת כְּשָׁפִ֑ים is a reference to Ishtar, ‘who was represented in Mesopotamia as a harlot, beautiful and gracious, but sometimes destructive.’ Watts notes that Ishtar, the goddess of sex and war, was savage, destructive and seductive; ‘With lustful visions of riches and power Ishtar had beguiled nations into the war of conquest.’ Van der Woude also has little doubt that the harlot imagery of 3:1-1 refers to Ishtar. This passage is religious as well as political.”27
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The Protestants usefulness in Anglo-American imperialism is what is illustrated in Revelation 3:17 and 17-18 and also parallels the horsemen of the 7 seals. Professor of World Christianity and History of Mission, and Director of the Center for Global Christianity and Mission, Dana L. Robert, has researched the contemporary and highly controversial issue of missionary imperialism. She maintains that, “since the 1960s, public opinion has been severely divided over the meaning of missionary visions,” and that, “flaws emerged,” in the paradigm of missionary involvement in that it did not account for, “missionary efforts to ‘convert’ it.”29 (The pronoun refers to imperialism.) Even so, two other professors, Lalsangkima Pachuau (the John Wesley Beeson Professor of Christian Mission and Dean of Advanced Research Programs) and Max Lynn Stackhouse (the Rimmer and Ruth de Vries Professor of Reformed Theology and Public Life Emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary) account for “missionary resistance” in imperialism and concluded “modernization” or imperialism still succeeded up to World War I and was facilitated by a good number of missionaries for sundry reasons.
“Christian missions were both allies and critics of colonialism. It was widely recognized that the missionary movement often spread with the extension of colonialism in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The military, administrative, and business leaders who dominated the colonized regions of the world were sometimes admired and imitated but often also deeply resented—especially by the indigenous elites who found themselves socially displaced, and also by masses of people who found it difficult to adapt to ‘foreign’ influences. The wrenching experience of ‘modernization’ was not easy and many treasured practices, skills, aspects of life-style, and conventions were made obsolete. While it is true, as already suggested, that many missionaries resisted the exploitation of indigenous peoples at the hands of colonialists or imperial administrators, and tried both to protect the people to whom they ministered and prepare them for some inevitable changes, there efforts were often seen as simply another part of the paternalistic problem. And, some missionaries were clearly supportive of colonial establishment, since it was believed to bring ‘Christian civilization’ to the world.”30
It is clearly viable that John, knowing Nahum’s use of Ishtar, “marveled” due to this parallelism. The final analysis cannot be avoided, the Protestant’s part in Ango-American imperialism is supported, even after disestablishment, broadening the parallelism between the harlot in Revelation 17 and the goddess Ishtar. The parallelism with Ishtar conveys apostate Protestantism’s marketing of prosperity through religion, empire, raising the status of the merchants and facilitating war.
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The raising of the status of the merchants at the end of medievalism and the first attempt at globalism cannot be severed from the influence of apostate Protestantism and the parallelism with the harlot in Revelation 17. It requires little reckoning to determine Burnham, Bailyn, Noll and Hobsbawm substantiate apostate Protestantism as the driving force in the raising of the status of the merchants in fairly recent times. Frymer-Kensky, Lanner, Timmer and Newsom substantiate the parallelism with Ishtar’s defiled traffic and apostate Protestantism, considering the former set of authors confirm the Papacy and its influence of establishment, resisted secularism.
“Of all private occupations trade was morally the most dangerous. The soul of the merchant was constantly exposed to sin by virtue of his control of goods necessary to other people. Since proof of the diligence he applied in his calling was in the profits he made from precisely such exchanges, could a line be drawn between industry and avarice? The Puritans answered, as had Catholics for half a millennium, that it could, and they designated this line the ‘just price.’”32
Try as the as they may, Max Weber’s critics cannot surmount that the spirit of capitalism lies in Protestantism; Protestantism ended establishment and secularized society. Success in disestablishment raised the status of “the merchants of the earth” in chapter 18, which naturally accompanied the first attempt of globalism and the seldom achieved exploitation of the poor in such magnitude. Even unbelievers such as the historian, Niall Ferguson, confirm the massive exploitation at the first Anglo attempt of globalism.
“Globalization... is not a new phenomenon.... Over a century ago, enterprising businessmen in Europe and North America could see that there were enticing opportunities throughout Asia... Capital was abundantly available and, as we shall see, British investors were more than ready to risk their money in remote countries.... the promise of Victorian globalization went largely unfulfilled in most of Asia, leaving a legacy of bitterness towards what is still remembered to this day as colonial exploitation…. Moreover, the last globalization had anything but a happy ending. On the contrary, less than a hundred years ago, in the summer of 1914, it ended not with a whimper, but with a deafening bang, as the principal beneficiaries of the globalized economy embarked on the most destructive war the world had ever witnessed…. If a foreign trading partner decided to default on its debts, there was little that an investor situated on the other side of the world could do. In the first era of globalization, the solution to this problem was brutally simple but effective: to impose European rule…. This vulnerability of early globalization to wars and revolutions was not peculiar to China. It turned out to be true of the entire world financial system…. The origins of the First World War became clearly visible—as soon as it had broken out.”33
Furthermore, Ferguson also confirms American imperialism in our present and final attempt at globalism through America’s International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
“Yet the days had gone when investors could confidently expect their governments to send a gunboat when a foreign government misbehaved. Now the role of financial policing had to be played by two unarmed bankers, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Their new watchword became 'conditionality': no reforms, no money. Their preferred mechanism was the structural adjustment programme. And the policies the debtor countries had to adopt became known as the Washington Consensus, a wish-list of ten economic policies that would have gladdened the heart of a British imperial administrator a hundred years before…. To some critics, however, the World Bank and the IMF were no better than agents of the same old Yankee imperialism. Any loans from the IMF or World Bank, it was claimed, would simply be used to buy American goods from American firms—often arms to keep ruthless dictators or corrupt oligarchies in power. The costs of ‘structural adjustment’ would be born by their hapless subjects. And Third World leaders who stepped out of line would soon find themselves in trouble.”34
Financial journalist, Nicola Walton, concurs in her book: How to Report Economic News.
“Like the IMF, the World Bank is said by its critics to be an agent of Western and in particular US imperialism, imposing faulty development policies on poor third world countries. The World Bank then becomes part of the set of international institutions designed to keep people of the third world in poverty.”35
Again, the raising of the status of the merchants at the end of medievalism and the first attempt at globalism cannot be severed from the influence of apostate Protestantism and the parallelism with the harlot in Revelation 17. It is evidence that the first horsemen in the 7 seals represents Protestantism’s missionary imperialism.
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1 William J. Reid, Lectures on the Revelation, Printed by Stevenson, Foster & Co., No. 48 Fifth Avenue 1878, pg. 87, “It is supposed that the church of Rome is described in the epistle to the church of Thyatira, under the name of that woman, 'Jezebel.' And it must be confessed, even by those who reject this theory, that the similarity is wonderful.”
John Gill’s Exposition on the Entire Bible, 1690-1771, REVELATION 2:20 “because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel… By her is meant the apostate church of Rome, comparable to Jezebel, the wife of Ahab; as she was the daughter of an Heathen, so is Rome Papal the daughter of Rome Pagan; and as she was the wife of Ahab, and therefore a queen, so the whore of Babylon calls herself…”
2 “The Roman Catholic Church has the largest number of members with over 1 billion, and yet the Bible reveals this church to be apostate. And we now also have many of the Protestant churches heading back to Rome, back to the "mother" (Mother of harlots).” http://www.end-times-prophecy.org/seven-churches-revelation-thyatira.html
Dr. Francis Nigel Lee, John's Revelation Unveiled, Ligstryders 1999, “So too does John's description of the woman herself. For she is no more the virgin bride of Christ of which the Church of Rome was once a part, prior to the rise of Papal Vaticanism. No! By the time reflected in John's description, in much the same way that the Older Testament's Israel degenerated into a veritable Sodom also the Early-Christian Virgin had now degenerated into a mediaeval "Whore" or a painted Jezebel. This Whore had been unfaithful, constantly, to the heavenly Bridegroom to Whom she owed loyalty. For she had fornicated with the Kings of the Earth. Thereby she had also intoxicated the inhabitants of the Earth with the wine of all this fornication all this immoral commerce going on between an apostate ecclesiastical power and international political leaders. The great Whore, then, is Rome. Thus Tertullian, Eusebius, Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine, Bede, Berengaud, and many others. Specifically, she is the Romish Papacy. Thus Waldo and the Waldensians, Joachim of Floris, Eberhard of Salzburg, Pierre d'Olivi, Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Wycliffe, Huss, Savanorola, and all of the Protestant Reformers.”
3 Meaning, few that profess actually worship in spirit and truth (Jn 4:23-24).
4 (Ac 2:17; 2Ti 3:1; Heb 1:2; Ja 5:3; 2Pe 3:3) Preterist hold the “last days” commenced with the first advent. What they fail to grasp is Prophetic Telescoping. Prophetic events appear in immediate sequence, like looking down a mountain range and viewing peaks than look up against each other but instead, great valleys lie between. The valleys correspond to the apocalyptic genre. But with new beginnings comes the end of the previous age or dispensation. The end of the Mosaic age ended in reformation and salvation of the remnant, which Prophetic telescoping conveys. The reformation is a trial or hardship, inaugurating the new age or dispensation. The Baptism of fire at the first advent was see also on the last mountain peak, which is not grasped by Preterism. It explains the misapprehension about temporal indicators.
17 Mark A. Noll, The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind, Eerdmans (October 19, 1995), pg. 66
18 Ibid., pg. 75-76
19 E.J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital, New American Library, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1979, p.261-62
20 Ibid., pg. 301
21 Tikva Frymer-Kensky, In the Wake of Goddess: Women, Culture and the Biblical Transformation of Pagan Myth, Ballantine Books (February 10, 1993), pg. 147
22 Ibid., pg. 80
23 Ibid., pg. 147-48, “The question must be asked whether this relationship of God to Israel is intended to serve as the paradigm for Israelite marriage. After all, in polytheism, the relationship between the gods is both mirror of and model for human social relationships. Can this be true in the Bible? Does the metaphor itself give men the right to be jealous of their wives, and to punish them when they do not live up to their husbands' expectations…. Marriage in Israel was certainly not "egalitarian" in the modern sense of the world. At the same time, it was not the hierarchy of master and servant, but a bond between loving intimates. As such it was an exact paradigm of the biblical conception of the proper relationship of people and God.”
24 Ibid., pg. 213-14
25 Ibid., pg. 151, “The Torah's use of this imagery may have been influenced by the prophetic development of the marital metaphor. It may also be the source of it…. This bond of love and commitment between marital partners provides the positive note in a marriage that might otherwise be called disastrous. The marriage is not a "happily ever after" affair. The wife of Hosea/God is a wanton, and does not give God the steadfast exclusive loyalty that is expected of her. God-as-husband is not forbearing. He is angry, and punishes. Nevertheless, the marriage does not end, for the marital metaphor emphasizes the commitment of God to Israel. The repudiation will only be temporary, and God will come again to woo his bride, and re-espouse her. After the disaster comes the reconciliation; after the destruction, the renewal; after the violence, the lovemaking.”
26 Daniel Timmer, The Non-Israelite Nations in the Book of the Twelve: Thematic Coherence and the Diachronic-Synchronic Relationship in the Minor Prophets (Biblical Interpretation), Brill (1724) 2015, pg. 130-31
Laurel Lanner on page 159 of her book, Who Will Lament Her?: The Feminine and the Fantastic in the Book of Nahum (The Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies), ties merchants with the goddess of the Assyrian empire through the book of Nahum. She states, “I see no reason why a motif—in this case ‘locusts’—cannot be used in different metaphors and similes successively. In fact, given the identification of the locusts as the officials, merchants and scribes of the imperial power in 3:16 and 17, 15bA offers a neat reversal of situations; ‘as you the Assyrians scythed us with your oppressive regime, so we shall return the favor.”
27 Laurel Lanner, Who Will Lament Her?: The Feminine and the Fantastic in the Book of Nahum (The Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies), Bloomsbury T&T Clark; F First Edition edition (May 24, 2006), pg. 146
29 Dana L. Robert, Converting Colonialism: Visions and Realities in Mission History, 1706-1914, Eerdmans (January 2, 2008), pg. 1-4
30 Lalsangkima Pachuau, Max L. Stackhouse, News of Boundless Riches, Center of Theological Inquiry and ISPCK (2007), pg. xiii
32 Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants In The Seventeenth Century (p. 16, 19-21, 39). Read Books Ltd.. Kindle Edition.
33 Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money, Penguin Books; 1 edition (October 27, 2009), pg. 287-305
34 Ibid., pg. 309-310
35 Nicola Walton, How to Report Economic News, Routledge; 1 edition (February 5, 2017), pg. 182