Two House Chronicles

The Folding of the Seals, Trumpets and Vials Part 2

The Folding of the Seals, Trumpets and Vials (Part 2)

by Hope, Marsue and Jerry Huerta

copyright 2017

edited 2018


In the previous chapter it was concluded that the historicist’s interpretations have progressed as each new generation has learned from the mistakes of the past and corrected their errors; this was chiefly conveyed in the case of the seven vials. Historicist E. B. Elliott held that the first vial or the commencement of the final plagues was fulfilled at the French Revolution,1 but more recent historicists have concluded that Elliott was in error and that and the vials or final plagues are an end time phenomena at the close of probation, just prior to Christ’s return.2 As a result, the seven vials cannot fold over the eras pertaining to the six earlier churches but must commence within the era of the seventh church; the seventh church encloses the seventh trumpet or the seven final plagues, just prior to Christ’s return.

There can be no equivocation that errors have been made by historicists in the past that are now being brought to light concerning the seals, the trumpets and structuring. The contemporary historicists Jon Paulien and Ranko Stefanovic have challenged the traditional historicist’s interpretations of the trumpets in connection with the fifth seal and the opening of the trumpets,3 by which they refuted the traditional views of the fifth and sixth trumpets as representing the rise and fall of the Ottoman empire.4 Even so, Paulien’s and Ranko’s omissions undermine their own interpretations; for example, the victims of the harlot Babylon (Revelation 17:6) cannot be omitted as an essential constituent of the fifth seal, which establishes that the trumpets maintain terminological and thematic correspondence with the sealing of the 144,000 and the three angels of Revelation 14. The souls under the altar in the fifth seal cry out for the final deliverance from oppression against the elect, in contradiction to the traditional interpretation of the ongoing oppression for two millennia; i.e., that deliverance is from the Jewish nation, the Romans and so on, suggestions that merely protract the oppression. While God delivered his people from such oppression in past ages the adverbial phrase (ως πότε) “how long” in Revelation 6:10 expresses finality, an end, as in Psalms 94. ως πότε appears in Psalms 94:3 of the Septuagint to express finality concerning the oppression of the house of Israel in the corporate sense, until its ultimate deliverance, which is precisely how the adverbial phrase is used in the fifth seal. The use of the phrase to convey a protracted phenomenon is an inconsistency.

It must be noted that the prophesied judgment depicted in the fifth seal must, by precedent, also represent, in the words of historicist William H. Shea, a “judgment which distinguishes between the righteous and the wicked in Israel.”5 An indication that this is the particular judgment applicable with the souls under the alter is seen in the response to them, they are given gifts of white robes and a favorable decision is rendered on their behalf as saints of the most High as in Daniel 7. Shea makes just such a connection in his perception that the judgment in Daniel 7 pertains to the church and the little horn in the booklet, Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation.


“For if the little horn stands for the papacy (as various interpreters in this school of interpretation have held), then this judgment has to deal, among other matters, with a professedly Christian entity.… Thus a judgment of the little horn would appear to involve a judgment of the millions of people who have attempted to follow God through allegiance to this alleged earthly representative of His. Any investigation by this judgment of the little horn should therefore involve an investigation into the cases of those professed Christian individuals who have made up and followed this corporate group.… The results of the judgment described in Daniel 7 cut both ways. An unfavorable decision is rendered in the case of the little horn: Its dominion is taken away and it is destroyed (vs. 6). On the other hand, a favorable decision is rendered in behalf of the saints of the Most High: They receive the kingdom (vs. 22).”6


Shea’s passage is from a composition about Divine judgments that were connected to the sanctuary, which surely concerns the anticipated judgment of the fifth seal that is consummated by the events of the trumpets. The applicability of Shea’s conclusion is confirmation that the judgments anticipated in the fifth seal cannot commence asynchronously with the sealing of the 144,000 and the decrees of the three angels in Revelation 14; they must be contemporaneous. Shea did not go on to elaborate that the judgment, “of the millions of people who have attempted to follow God,” must conform to the principle of 1 Peter 4:17-18; the little horn cannot be judged until God judges his house, first. Historicist Ellen G. White stumbled on the synchronicity between the judgment in Daniel 7 and the sealing of the 144,000 and the decrees of the three angels in a publication intended for evangelists.


“No one has yet received the mark of the beast. The testing time has not yet come. There are true Christians in every church, not excepting the Roman Catholic communion. None are condemned until they have had the light.… the loud cry of the third angel shall warn men against the worship of the beast and his image, the line will be clearly drawn between the false and the true. Then those who still continue in transgression will receive the mark of the beast.”7


White is unequivocally addressing the judgment of the little horn that must be preceded by calling out God’s people, which is the same judgment that Shea wrote about in the passage from his composition. Shea found that there are a minority of judgments connected to the sanctuary, some of which pertain strictly to heathen nations; this is not the case concerning the trumpets, conveyed in the imagery of the gift of the white robes. The trumpets must initially represent the precedent of a “judgment which distinguishes between the righteous and the wicked in Israel,” as it pertains to the church, which contrasts it from the prototypes pertaining strictly to the nations.  The judgments depicted in the trumpets must commence with the church, in correspondence with 1 Peter 4:17-18, as conveyed in chapter 6 of this work. This was also unintentionally confirmed by White in other publications.


“The events to transpire under the fifth seal are, the crying of the martyrs for vengeance, and giving to them white robes. This represents the work of the reformers, and covers the period of the great reformation. In reference to the souls under the altar, Dr. Clarke says: ‘A symbolical vision was exhibited in which he saw an altar. And under it the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God - martyred for their attachment to Christianity - are represented as being newly slain, as victims to idolatry and superstition. The altar is upon earth, not in Heaven.’”8


“When the fifth seal was opened, John the Revelator in vision saw beneath the altar the company that were slain for the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. After this came the scenes described in the eighteenth of Revelation, when those who are faithful and true are called out from Babylon.”9


The historicists discussed at present represent the Seventh-day Adventists, who are a significant group within historicism. They are committed to agreeing with White and cannot avoid her conclusion that the oppression referred to in the fifth seal includes that imposed on the reformers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,10 and her thematic and terminological correspondence with the call to come out of Babylon in Revelation 18. Her concessions support the understanding that the trumpets cannot represent judgments prior to that time, insomuch as the souls of the fifth seal are admonished to wait until an appointed time when more of their brethren must be killed before said judgments materialize. Adventists Jon Paulien and Ranko Stefanovic correctly maintain that the trumpets represent the punishment of those who oppress the souls depicted in the fifth seal;11 yet, they err on the timing, proposing that the trumpets represent judgments prior to the “Great Reformation”. If one concedes Ellen G. White was correct above, the punishments depicted by the trumpets are yet future.


“The prophecies in the eighteenth of Revelation will soon be fulfilled. During the proclamation of the third angel’s message, ‘another angel’ is to ‘come down from heaven, having great power,’ and the earth is to be ‘lightened with his glory.’ The Spirit of the Lord will so graciously bless consecrated human instrumentalities that men, women, and children will open their lips in praise and thanksgiving, filling the earth with the knowledge of God, and with his unsurpassed glory, as the waters cover the sea.”12


White maintained that the fifth seal conveyed the oppression of the reformers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which substantiates that the events depicted by the trumpets cannot commence prior to this which agrees with her passages, above, which makes the traditional historicist’s interpretation of the trumpets, imbibed by the Adventists, steeped in contradictions and errors. Furthermore, White’s rendition of the fifth seal represents the same judgment in Shea’s extract, above, which indisputably establishes that the judgments depicted by the trumpets cannot possibly be interpreted as commencing until the reformation abated, after the phenomenon in Daniel 7:10. No gainsay will prosper against the conclusion that the victims of the harlot Babylon (Revelation 17:6) are an essential constituent of those who are martyred in the fifth seal, and such establishes terminological and thematic correspondence between the trumpets, the sealing of the 144,000 and the decrees of the three angels.

The traditional historicist’s interpretation of the harlot woman in Revelation 17, Babylon, is that she represents the papacy. White held this view.


“In Revelation 17, Babylon is represented as a woman, a figure which is used in the Scriptures as the symbol of a church. A virtuous woman represents a pure church, a vile woman an apostate church.… The Babylon thus described represents Rome, that apostate church which has so cruelly persecuted the followers of Christ.”13


Yet, the Adventists developed the notion that in other passages in the Revelation, Babylon cannot be construed as such because the papacy can hardly be described as fallen from moral rectitude at the time of the pronouncement to God’s people to come out of her (Revelation 14:8; 18:1-4). White conceded this reflection.


“The message of Revelation 14, announcing the fall of Babylon, must apply to religious bodies that were once pure and have become corrupt. Since this message follows the warning of the judgment, it must be given in the last days; therefore it cannot refer to the Roman Church alone, for that church has been in a fallen condition for many centuries. Furthermore, in the eighteenth chapter of the Revelation the people of God are called upon to come out of Babylon. According to this scripture, many of God's people must still be in Babylon.”14


A contemporary of White in the Advent movement, Edward S. Ballenger, contended with her over the issue of viewing Babylon as disconnected entities in Revelation.


“There is but one Babylon of the book of Revelation and any one who attempts to teach otherwise is ignorant, stupid, or blinded by a creed. My brother, if you contend that Babylon of Rev. 17 represents Rome, and Babylon of Rev. 14:8 represents Protestant churches that fell morally in 1844, how can you meet the Sunday Sabbath advocate if he contends that "Sabbath" of the book of Acts, or ‘the Lord's day’ of Rev. 1:10 means Sunday? One is no more inconsistent than the other. To contend that Babylon of the second angel's message represents fallen Protestantism one is obliged to ignore God's definition of Babylon and violate one of the most fundamental rules of sound interpretation.”15


Ballenger was correct in one sense; there are good reasons to consistently perceive Babylon as the same entity throughout the book of Revelation but he failed to grasp that Babylon cannot be equated to the revived eighth king in Revelation 17. There is a juxtaposition between the woman and the kings. The kings were ordained to oppress the people of God, however the woman, who, which this work maintains represents the people of God, would become an oppressive power herself by exploiting her brethren. Although displeasing to God he allowed her unsanctified behavior to fulfill his plan. Again, in contrast, the kings were ordained to oppress God’s people while the woman, unlike the kings, is allowed to have her way and fall from moral rectitude to oppress her children, just as the Israel under the OT.


Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations.…  thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me, and these hast thou sacrificed unto them to be devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a small matter, thou hast slain my children, and delivered them to cause them to pass through the fire for them? (Ezekiel 16:2, 20-21)


There is no juxtaposition between the harlot in Revelation 14, 17 and 18, insomuch as she is indicted in Revelation 17, which links her to her fall in Revelation 14 and 18. White unwittingly stumbles on this by maintaining that the “image” to the papacy represents the time when, “the Protestant churches shall seek the aid of the civil power for the enforcement of their dogmas.”16 But White’s view of Protestantism as becoming apostate in her time was not unprecedented and Revelation makes it plain that the beast and the false prophet (Revelation 13-19) represent persecuting ecclesiastic and civil powers on judgment day. Protestantism and Roman Catholicism play a part in judgment day. The history of Romanism and Protestantism make a case for John being taken by the Spirit into the future and from that viewpoint then, the woman represents apostate Protestantism that is on the verge of steering America into making the “image” which will enforce religious dogmas through civil authority. The traditional Protestant interpretation that the sixth king in Revelation 17 represents imperial Rome cannot withstand the evidence in verses 8-11 that the eighth king “was” prior to the sixth king, and not that the sixth king “was” and “is” at the time John is witnessing the indictment of the harlot woman Babylon. Further, the view that the sixth king is Rome only allows for one more king before the eighth king, the papacy, becomes clothed in the civil power it once had prior to the rise of America. But in rendering imperial Rome as the fourth king (one of the five that had fallen) the sequence correctly allows for three more kings to rise after Rome before the eighth is once again clothed in civil power. Rendering imperial Rome as the fourth king allows the two-horned beast in Revelation 13, America, to be the sixth king and the image it makes becomes the seventh that rules for a short space before the eighth is once again clothed in the civil powers it had before the rise of America; all the beasts in Daniel and the Revelation are accounted for as the seven, nay eight kings in Revelation 17. Obviously White failed to grasp that the viewpoint in which John saw the woman was from the future, with the consequence being that the woman of Revelation 17 cannot then be interpreted as the papacy at any time, but must rather consistently represent the same entity of apostate Protestantism.17 This makes Ballenger correct in his assessment that Babylon is not the papacy in one place and apostate Protestantism in another, even though he was wrong in stating that she represents the papacy, whatsoever. There is an indication that the woman is indicted as Babylon at the time the two-horned beast makes the image in Revelation 13 and this supports she cannot be the papacy, but must represent apostate Protestantism, which somewhat substantiates what White stumbled unto: that the one who steers America to make the image is apostate Protestantism.


Several pages missing to occasion response


In review, Shea maintained that the judgement of the little horn in Daniel involves, “a judgment of the millions of people who have attempted to follow God through allegiance to this alleged earthly representative,”27 and that earthly representative is the papacy according to Adventists and historicists in general. Considering those same people, White maintained they would pay this allegiance until, “the loud cry of the third angel,”28 which reveals that the judgment in Daniel 7 begins with the house of God in conformity with 1 Peter 4:17-18 and exposes the judgment as covenantal in nature. Said conformity affirms that the first five trumpets, the first woe, must uphold the precedent of past judgments “which distinguish between the righteous and the wicked in Israel.”29 The condemnation for fornicating with the kings of the earth, regarding the woman riding the beast in Revelation 17, implies an obligation of militancy, as she was to wrestle against the kings of the earth thus, the woman cannot be said to be the papacy insomuch as the papacy was ordained to oppress the woman in Revelation 12 up until the time of the sixth king, when it is wounded (Revelation 13:3, 7). White agreed with the latter, which substantially supports the point that the woman in Revelation 17 represents the fallen state of the women of Revelation 12 and is the mother of harlot daughters. The papacy was not obliged to wrestle against evil; it was ordained as an evil power and for this reason cannot be condemned for fornicating with the kings of earth. Mastering this evidence renders the woman in Revelation 17 as apostate Protestantism, not the papacy, who is drunk with the blood of the saints and the martyrs. The Protestant’s fornication with the kings was occurring at the time of White and the advent movement, but this history was for another time, for succeeding generations to uncover. The history of how the Protestants exploited their brethren and made their lives miserable and short was intended for this generation, the final generation, to unveil: “And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus” (Revelation 17:6). This revelation unveils the four horsemen of the seven seals as representing the exploitation of the saints by apostate Protestants, insomuch as the martyrs slain by Babylon, apostate Protestantism, cannot be omitted as an essential constituent of the intent of the fifth seal. Mastering the aforesaid, unveils the four horsemen of the seals as representing apostate Protestantism’s exploitation of their own brethren to enrich themselves.

As revealed in chapter six of this work, the evidence that the opening scene of the trumpets represents the response to the pleas of the saints in the fifth seal for judgment against those who have oppressed them establishes that the seals represent their oppression and the trumpets represent said judgment. What the traditional historicists and Adventists have failed to grasp concerning this is that the trumpets represent covenant judgments which must begin at the house of God (1 Peter 4:17-18) and, consequently, the oppression represented by the seals must be interpreted as originating from those who profess “allegiance to God’s kingdom” before judgment falls on those who have never avowed such allegiance. Precedent establishes that the most common covenantal provocation for God’s judgments was the exploitation of the poor by the affluent.


Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they have prescribed; To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless! And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which shall come from far? to whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory? (Isaiah 10:1-3)


Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes; That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek. (Amos 2:6-7)


Such compounding evidence revealing that apostate Protestantism exploited their poor brethren with the first attempt at globalism leads us to confirm another shocking conclusion—the fallen woman, apostate Protestantism, also represents Babylon in the Revelation. She is not the papacy, and this suggestion was broached in chapter six of this work. This can be supported by looking at the history of the struggle between the Anglican church and Puritanism in England. The Anglican church still held vestiges of the Medieval concept that the obligations of society were based upon a spiritual endeavor, which married state and religion, while the Puritans championed “individualism,” that diminished, “obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality)”;31 the latter led to the separation of church and state. The evidence overwhelmingly vindicates that the Puritan doctrine of “individualism” triumphed and led to the exploitation of the lower masses in agriculture and industry, at a magnitude never before been witnessed in history.


Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you.  Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten. Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth. Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter. Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you. Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain. Be ye also patient; stablish your hearts: for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh. (James 5:1-8)


Theologian and economic historian Richard Henry Tawney was cited in chapter six for his analysis that the early Calvinists had subdued the medieval onus of wealth that was ultimately placed on poverty by the Puritans.32 This shift was recounted under the heading of THE NEW MEDICINE FOR POVERTY, where it was observed that during the prior Elizabethan Tudor era, “statesmen had little mercy for idle rogues,” but had to concede, “pauperism primarily as a social phenomenon produced by economic dislocation,” which still triggered, “social compunction,” with indictments of, “at whose handes shall the bloude of these men be required?” by the English clergy such as William Harrison.33 Harrison fulfilled the apolitical obligation of the “church militant” to expose the typical nature of the unregenerate who exploited their impoverished brethren to enrich themselves (James 5:1-8); but when the church fails to fulfill its apolitical obligation as the conscience of the state, the blood of its victims is on her hands: “And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus” (Revelation 17:6). Another social historical author, Richard F. Hamilton, chronicles the very same account.


“Calvinism, however, is best seen as a social movement. As such, it was subject to many impulses and, accordingly, was continuously changing. The movement had its greatest impact over nearly two centuries, beginning in the 1540s. It began as an aggressive radical force, as a ‘church militant,’ the phrase culminating in the Thirty Years’ War, a devastating struggle to determine among other things, the position of Calvinism within Europe.… In England, Calvinism was represented by the Puritans, a reform movement within the Church of England that began in the Elizabethan period. The struggle between the orthodox Anglicans and the reformers centered on questions of ritual, church governance, moral standards, and the royal prerogative. The attempted repression of this movement under Charles I and Archbishop William Laud led to the English Civil War (also called the Puritan Revolution), 1642-1648, and to the deposition and execution of the monarch. The short-lived Commonwealth followed; it was the period of Calvinist triumph. In 1660, Parliament ended that experiment and the monarchy was restored. The Puritanism of the Restoration period differed from its predecessors—sober, temperate, and restrained, it was no longer a ‘militant’ church.”34


Hamilton chronicled that the Puritans during the Elizabethan era fulfilled their “militant” obligations, which Tawney conveyed in one sense was to apolitically expose the fallen moral standard of the state pertaining to its obligation to provide relief for the pauperism it created because of “economic dislocation,” which was merely another way of expressing that the state had fostered the circumstances due to its economic policies. Some century and a half later the situation had changed and the Puritans no longer fulfilled their obligations to remain “militant” and act as the apolitical conscience of the state, to act as a city set on a hill to be a light but became a political force to further their own ambitious aims of “individualism” to exploit the poor; Hamilton cites from other authors such as Baxter and Eisen and continues.


“The doctrine of the calling existed before and after the Civil War, but before, the Puritan writers counseled ‘activism, warfare, vigilance, and intolerance,’ whereas afterwards the emphasis was on ‘meekness, humility, chastity, tolerance, etc.’ The earlier attempt to ‘transform the earthly order’ gave way to an encouragement of the ‘lower class’ in the ‘obedience to the new order by then produced.’ Baxter’s ideal type, Eisen writes, ‘cannot be Weber’s, for the personality moulded is different:  in place of mastery, we find resignation, and in place of the accountable believer, a belittling of man’s ability to decide the right for himself.’ Weber picked up and emphasized (Eisen says he ‘exaggerated’) the denial of pleasure, the asceticism of Puritanism. But the portrait of driven men aiming to master the world is a ‘distortion’ of the later formulations. Puritanism, in the second half of the seventeenth century, had adopted the quietism Weber attributes to Lutheranism.”35


Hamilton chronicled that the Puritans began to “encourage” (more in the order of control) the “poor” to be obedient to the new order, which completely conflicts with his criticism of Weber’s analysis that the Puritans were, “driven men aiming to master the world.” Hamilton’s former analysis is rather in harmony with Weber and is what history actually affirms, especially when it afirms that the Puritans became the bourgeois of the era. Hamilton affirms that the Puritans encouraged the “lower class” to be obedient to the new order, but as history affirms, for themselves, they continued to champion “individualism” which diminished “their obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality).” Hamilton unsuccessfully attempts to nitpick the German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist, Max Weber, who also wrote about the era. Here Weber writes:


“As far as the influence of the Puritan outlook extended, under all circumstances – and this is, of course, much more important than the mere encouragement of capital accumulation – it favoured the development of a rational bourgeoisie’s economic life; it was the most important, and above all the only consistent influence in the development of that life. It stood at the cradle of the modern economic man. To be sure, these Puritanical ideals tended to give way under excessive pressure from the temptations of wealth, as the Puritans themselves knew very well. With great regularity we find the most genuine adherents of Puritanism among the classes which were rising from a lowly status, the small bourgeois and farmers, while the beati possidentes, even among Quakers, are often found tending to repudiate the old ideals. It was the same fate which again and again befell the predecessor of this worldly asceticism, the monastic asceticism of the Middle Ages. In the latter case, when rational economic activity had worked out its full effects by strict regulation of conduct and limitation of consumption, the wealth accumulated either succumbed directly to the nobility, as in the time before the Reformation, or monastic discipline threatened to break down, and one of the numerous reformations became necessary.”36


According to Weber, the monasteries had been moved to fraternize with the nobility with their accumulation of wealth from their temporal enterprises and in like manner the Puritans also succumbed to same thing when they became wealthy in their temporal enterprises, which resulted in their fornication with the kings of the earth; they became the object of what E. J Hobsbawm wrote about in his work, The Age of Capitalism.


“Buttressed by clothes, walls and objects, there was the bourgeois family, the most mysterious institution of the age. For, if it is easy to discover or to devise connections between puritanism and capitalism, as a large literature bears witness, those between nineteenth-century family structure and bourgeois society remain obscure. In deed the apparent conflict between the two has rarely even been noticed. Why should a society dedicated to an economy of profit-making competitive enterprise, to the efforts of the isolated individual, to equality of rights and opportunities and freedom, rest on an institution which so totally denied all of these?”37


Several pages missing to occasion response


                In conclusion, the evidence, above, explains the symbolism of the white horse of the first seal that many historicists attempt to apply to the early church;39 even so, the church goes forth “conquering, and to conquer”, but not in the first century and not for the gospel—but rather it goes forth “conquering, and to conquer” in the time of the end, the nineteenth century. For it is by their commerce that the Protestants oppressed their brethren in order to enrich themselves, and this is the shameful depiction of the spirit of the Laodicean church. Colonialism ensued which fomented wars and rumors of wars, which is characterized by the rider of the red horse. The use of the markets and national banks to control the prices of goods and services is characterized by the rider of the black horse and rider of the pale horse follows when fluctuations, such as depressions and recessions, results in famine and death: “And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.” The symbolism in the seals represents the provocation for the covenantal judgments depicted by the trumpets. All discord in historicism is resolved in structuring the events of the seven-seals as conterminous with the last era of the seventh church, the events of the seven-trumpets as conterminous with the seventh seal and the events of the seven vials as conterminous with the seventh trumpet. This is the recapitulation and structure that John intended.


please send questions and responses here


1. Tucker, Brief historical explanation of the Revelation of St. John, According to the 'Horæ Apocalypticæ' of the Rev. E.B. Elliott, 103.

2. Treiyer, “the last and seventh trumpet was expected to be definitive in connection with the coming of the Lord (Rev 11:18: God's wrath outpoured in the seven plagues, 16:1).” “Treiyer’s review of Heidi Heiks’: Satin’s Counterfeit Prophecy,” 5.

3. Stefanovic, “It thus appears that the clue to the full theological meaning of Rev 8:3-5 lies in the scene of the fifth seal.” The Angel at the Altar (Revelation 8:3-5): A Case Study on Intercalations in Revelation, 86; Paulien, “Very significant is the reference in Rev 8:13, which stands at the structural center of the seven trumpets. This verse indicates that the trumpet plagues fall on ‘those who live on the earth,’ the same group which was martyring the saints, referred to in 6:9-11 as the ‘souls under the altar,’” Interpreting the Seven Trumpets, 6-7

4. In the sixth chapter of this work Stefansson was cited to vindicate the traditional historicist’s interpretation of the trumpets, specifically the fifth and sixth is under assault and cannot withstand the contemporary historic evidence that exposes its fallacies

5. William H. Shea, Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation, (Biblical Research Institute, 1992, printed by Review and Herald Publishing Association), 145.

6. Ibid.

7. Ellen G. White, Evangelism (Washington, DC: Review and Herald Pub. Assn., 1946), 234.

8. White is delineating her interpretation of the seals in the citation, which was written down by her husband James. James White, The Sign of the Times, 20.1, (Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association. Battle Creek, Mich., 1865)

9. Ellen G. White, Manuscripts 39 (Silver Spring, MD: Ellen G. White Estate, 1906), paragraph 3

10. In her book, The Great Controversy, pages 249-64, White has the opening of the “Great Reformation” commence with Luther and Tyndale (circa sixteenth century) and then expiring by the eighteenth century and having to be rekindled by men such as Charles and John Wesley.

11. Paulien, “Interpreting the Seven Trumpets”; Stefanovic, “The Angel at the Altar (Revelation 8:3-5): A Case Study on Intercalations in Revelation.”

12. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Vol. VII, s.v.  (Review and Herald Pub., 1980), 984.

13. Ellen G. White, The Spirit of Prophecy: The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of the Controversy, vol. IV (Battle Creek: Steam Press, 1884), 233.

14. Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy, (Review and Herald pub., 1911), 383.

15. Edward S. Ballenger, “The Second Angel’s Message or the Fall of Babylon,” 5-6

16. White, The Great Controversy, 445

17. Ironically, White grasped the concept of being taken into the future and viewing events from that perspective but never applied it to interpret Revelation 17: “At times I am carried far ahead into the future and shown what is to take place. Then again I am shown things as they have occurred in the past.” Spiritual Gifts, vol. 2, (Battle Creek, MI: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, 1860) 292.

27. Shea, “Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation

28. White, Evangelism, 234.

29. Shea, “Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation

31. Wikipedia: “Individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy against obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state or religious morality).” s.v. Individualism, modified May 2018,

32. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism, 230.

33. Ibid., 270.

34. Richard F. Hamilton, The Social Misconstruction of Reality: Validity and Verification in the Scholarly Community (Yale University Press, April 24, 1996), 69-70

35. Ibid., 70.

36. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Merchant Books; abridged edition, October 12, 2013), 103.

37. E. J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital 1848-1875 (New American Library, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1979), 261.

39. E. G. White, “The opening of the first seal reveals a white horse.… This is a fit image of the triumphs of the gospel in the first centuries of this dispensation.” Sings of the Times (Seventh-day Adventist Pub. Association, Battle Creek, Mich., 1865), 186.